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  1. Abstract

    Modeling the integrated Hispectra of galaxies has been a difficult task, due to their diverse shapes, but more dynamical information is waiting to be explored in Hiline profiles. Based on simple assumptions, we construct a physically motivated model for the integrated Hispectra: Parameterized Asymmetric Neutral hydrogen Disk Integrated Spectrum Characterization (PANDISC). The model shows great flexibility in reproducing the diverse Hiprofiles. We use Monte Carlo Markov Chain for fitting the model to global Hiprofiles and produce statistically robust quantitative results. Comparing with several samples of Hidata available in the literature, we find the model-fitted widths agree with cataloged velocity widths (e.g.,W50) down to S/N ≲ 6. While dynamical information can only be extracted reliably from spectra with S/N > 8. The model is also shown to be useful for applications like the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation (BTFR) and profile-based sample control. By comparing the model parametervrtovflat, we uncover how the Hiwidth is affected by the structure of the rotation curve, following a trend consistent with the difference in the BTFR slope. We also select a sample of spectra with broad wing-like features suggestive of a population of galaxies with unusual gas dynamics. The PANDISC model bears both promise and limitationsmore »for potential use beyond Hilines. Further application on the whole ALFALFA sample will enable us to perform large-scale ensemble studies of the Hiproperties and dynamics in nearby galaxies.

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    We study the relative fractions of quenched and star-forming satellite galaxies in the Satellites Around Galactic Analogs (SAGA) survey and Exploration of Local VolumE Satellites (ELVES) program, two nearby and complementary samples of Milky Way-like galaxies that take different approaches to identify faint satellite galaxy populations. We cross-check and validate sample cuts and selection criteria, as well as explore the effects of different star-formation definitions when determining the quenched satellite fraction of Milky Way analogues. We find the mean ELVES quenched fraction (〈QF〉), derived using a specific star formation rate (sSFR) threshold, decreases from ∼50 per cent to ∼27 per cent after applying a cut in absolute magnitude to match that of the SAGA survey (〈QF〉SAGA ∼9 per cent). We show these results are consistent for alternative star-formation definitions. Furthermore, these quenched fractions remain virtually unchanged after applying an additional cut in surface brightness. Using a consistently derived sSFR and absolute magnitude limit for both samples, we show that the quenched fraction and the cumulative number of satellites in the ELVES and SAGA samples broadly agree. We briefly explore radial trends in the ELVES and SAGA samples, finding general agreement in the number of star-forming satellites per host as a function ofmore »radius. Despite the broad agreement between the ELVES and SAGA samples, some tension remains with these quenched fractions in comparison to the Local Group and simulations of Milky Way analogues.

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  3. Abstract

    The baryonic Tully–Fisher relation (BTFR) has applications in galaxy evolution as a test bed for the galaxy–halo connection and in observational cosmology as a redshift-independent secondary distance indicator. This analysis leverages the 31,000+ galaxy Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (AreciboL-band Feed Array) Survey (ALFALFA) sample—which provides redshifts, velocity widths, and Hicontent for a large number of gas-bearing galaxies in the local universe—to fit and test an extensive local universe BTFR. The fiducial relation is fit using a 3000-galaxy subsample of ALFALFA, and is shown to be consistent with the full sample. This BTFR is designed to be as inclusive of ALFALFA and comparable samples as possible. Velocity widths measured via an automated method andMbproxies extracted from survey data can be uniformly and efficiently measured for other samples, giving this analysis broad applicability. We also investigate the role of sample demographics in determining the best-fit relation. We find that the best-fit relations are changed significantly by changes to the sample mass range and to second order by changes to mass sampling, gas fraction, different stellar mass and velocity width measurements. We use a subset of ALFALFA with demographics that reflect the full sample to measure a robust BTFR slope of 3.30more »± 0.06. We apply this relation and estimate source distances, finding general agreement with flow-model distances as well as average distance uncertainties of ∼0.17 dex for the full ALFALFA sample. We demonstrate the utility of these distance estimates by applying them to a sample of sources in the Virgo vicinity, recovering signatures of infall consistent with previous work.

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  4. Abstract

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 14 gas-rich, low-surface-brightness galaxies in the field at distances of 25–36 Mpc, with mean effective radii andg-band central surface brightnesses of 1.9 kpc and 24.2 mag arcsec−2. Nine meet the standard criteria to be considered ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). An inspection of point-like sources brighter than the turnover magnitude of the globular cluster luminosity function and within twice the half-light radii of each galaxy reveals that, unlike those in denser environments, gas-rich, field UDGs host very few old globular clusters (GCs). Most of the targets (nine) have zero candidate GCs, with the remainder having one or two candidates each. These findings are broadly consistent with expectations for normal dwarf galaxies of similar stellar mass. This rules out gas-rich, field UDGs as potential progenitors of the GC-rich UDGs that are typically found in galaxy clusters. However, some in galaxy groups may be directly accreted from the field. In line with other recent results, this strongly suggests that there must be at least two distinct formation pathways for UDGs, and that this subpopulation is simply an extreme low surface brightness extension of the underlying dwarf galaxy population. The root cause of their diffuse stellar distributionsmore »remains unclear, but the formation mechanism appears to only impact the distribution of stars (and potentially dark matter), without strongly impacting the distribution of neutral gas, the overall stellar mass, or the number of GCs.

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  5. Abstract

    We present theoretical expectations for infall toward supercluster-scale cosmological filaments, motivated by the Arecibo Pisces–Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS) to map the velocity field around the Pisces–Perseus Supercluster (PPS) filament. We use a minimum spanning tree applied to dark matter halos the size of galaxy clusters to identify 236 large filaments within the Millennium simulation. Stacking the filaments along their principal axes, we determine a well-defined, sharp-peaked velocity profile function that can be expressed in terms of the maximum infall rateVmaxand the distanceρmaxbetween the location of maximum infall and the principal axis of the filament. This simple, two-parameter functional form is surprisingly universal across a wide range of linear mass densities.Vmaxis positively correlated with the halo mass per length along the filament, andρmaxis negatively correlated with the degree to which the halos are concentrated along the principal axis. We also assess an alternative, single-parameter method usingV25, the infall rate at a distance of 25 Mpc from the axis of the filament. Filaments similar to the PPS haveVmax=612±116 km s−1,ρmax=8.9±2.1Mpc, andV25= 329 ± 68 km s−1. We create mock observations to model uncertainties associated with viewing angle, lack of three-dimensional velocity information, limited samplemore »size, and distance uncertainties. Our results suggest that it would be especially useful to measure infall for a larger sample of filaments to test our predictions for the shape of the infall profile and the relationships among infall rates and filament properties.

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    We present neutral atomic hydrogen (H i) observations using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope along the lines of sight to 49 confirmed or possible dwarf satellite galaxies around eight Local Volume systems (M104, M51, NGC 1023, NGC 1156, NGC 2903, NGC 4258, NGC 4565, and NGC 4631). We detect the H i reservoirs of two candidates (dw0934+2204 and dw1238−1122) and find them to be background sources relative to their nearest foreground host systems. The remaining 47 satellite candidates are not detected in H i, and we place stringent 5σ upper limits on their H i mass. We note that some (15/47) of our non-detections stem from satellites being occluded by their putative host’s H i emission. In addition to these new observations, we compile literature estimates on the H i mass for an additional 17 satellites. We compare the H i properties of these satellites to those within the Local Group, finding broad agreement between them. Crucially, these observations probe a ‘transition’ region between −10 ≳ MV ≳ −14 where we see a mixture of gas-rich and gas-poor satellites. While there are many gas-poor satellites within this region, some are gas-rich and this suggests that the transition towards predominantly gas-rich satellites occurs at LVmore »∼ 107L⊙, in line with simulations. The observations presented here are a key step toward characterizing the properties of dwarf satellite galaxies around Local Volume systems and future wide-field radio surveys with higher angular resolution (e.g. WALLABY) will vastly improve upon the study of such systems.

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  7. Abstract We use panoramic optical spectroscopy obtained with the Very Large Telescope/MUSE to investigate the nature of five candidate extremely isolated low-mass star-forming regions (Blue Candidates; hereafter, BCs) toward the Virgo cluster of galaxies. Four of the five (BC1, BC3, BC4, and BC5) are found to host several H ii regions and to have radial velocities fully compatible with being part of the Virgo cluster. All the confirmed candidates have mean metallicity significantly in excess of that expected from their stellar mass, indicating that they originated from gas stripped from larger galaxies. In summary, these four candidates share the properties of the prototype system SECCO 1, suggesting the possible emergence of a new class of stellar systems, intimately linked to the complex duty cycle of gas within clusters of galaxies. A thorough discussion of the nature and evolution of these objects is presented in a companion paper, where the results obtained here from the MUSE data are complemented with Hubble Space Telescope (optical) and Very Large Array (H i ) observations.
  8. Abstract We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of five faint dwarf galaxies associated with the nearby spiral NGC 253 (D ≈ 3.5 Mpc). Three of these are newly discovered dwarf galaxies, while all five were found in the Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor, a Magellan+Megacam survey to identify faint dwarfs and other substructures in resolved stellar light around massive galaxies outside of the Local Group. Our HST data reach ≳3 magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch for each dwarf, allowing us to derive their distances, structural parameters, and luminosities. All five systems contain mostly old, metal-poor stellar populations (age ∼12 Gyr, [M/H] ≲ −1.5) and have sizes ( r h ∼ 110–3000 pc) and luminosities ( M V ∼ −7 to −12 mag) largely consistent with Local Group dwarfs. The three new NGC 253 satellites are among the faintest systems discovered beyond the Local Group. We also use archival H i data to place limits on the gas content of our discoveries. Deep imaging surveys such as our program around NGC 253 promise to elucidate the faint end of the satellite luminosity function and its scatter across a range of galaxy masses, morphologies,more »and environments in the decade to come.« less
  9. Abstract

    We discuss five blue stellar systems in the direction of the Virgo cluster, analogous to the enigmatic object SECCO 1 (AGC 226067). These objects were identified based on their optical and UV morphology and followed up with Hiobservations with the Very Large Array (and Green Bank Telescope), Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (on the Very Large Telescope) optical spectroscopy, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These new data indicate that one system is a distant group of galaxies. The remaining four are extremely low mass (M*∼ 105M), are dominated by young blue stars, have highly irregular and clumpy morphologies, are only a few kiloparsecs across, yet host an abundance of metal-rich,12+log(O/H)>8.2, Hiiregions. These high metallicities indicate that these stellar systems formed from gas stripped from much more massive galaxies. Despite the young age of their stellar populations, only one system is detected in Hi, while the remaining three have minimal (if any) gas reservoirs. Furthermore, two systems are surprisingly isolated and have no plausible parent galaxy within ∼30′ (∼140 kpc). Although tidal stripping cannot be conclusively excluded as the formation mechanism of these objects, ram pressure stripping more naturally explains their properties, inmore »particular their isolation, owing to the higher velocities, relative to the parent system, that can be achieved. Therefore, we posit that most of these systems formed from ram-pressure-stripped gas removed from new infalling cluster members and survived in the intracluster medium long enough to become separated from their parent galaxies by hundreds of kiloparsecs and that they thus represent a new type of stellar system.

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