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  1. Abstract

    Size‐based selectivity for metal ions based on highly preorganized five‐membered chelate rings is discussed. Metal ion complexation by the tetra‐pyridyl ligand EBIP ((8,9‐dihydro‐diquino[8,7‐b:7′,8′‐j][1,10]phenanthroline) is investigated, Formation constants (log K1) are reported for EBIP with 28 metal ions in 50 % CH3OH/H2O (v/v). The shift in size‐selectivity toward large metal ions and against small metal is demonstrated. Log K1for the EBIP complexes shows a steady increase from La(III) to Lu(III), with a strong local maximum at Sm(III), and strong local minimum at Gd(III). This difference in log K1between Sm(III) and Gd(III) for the tetra‐pyridyls is shown to depend largely on the level of preorganization of the ligand, being at a maximum for EBIP and a minimum for quaterpyridine. Log K1for the Y(III) complex is invariably lower than for the similarly‐sized Ho(III) for all ligands that contain any nitrogen donors. Lower log K values for Y(III) are due to stabilization of the Ln(III) complexes with nitrogen donors by participation of the 5d orbitals, and to a lesser extent the 4 f orbitals, of the Ln(III) ions in M−L bonding. A DFT analysis of selectivity of tetra‐pyridyls for metal ions shows that Y(III) complexes should be less stable than similarly‐sized Ho(III) complexes.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Danthonia californicaBolander (Poaceae)is a native perennial bunchgrass commonly used in the restoration of prairie ecosystems in the western United States. Plants of this species simultaneously produce both chasmogamous (potentially outcrossed) and cleistogamous (obligately self‐fertilized) seeds. Restoration practitioners almost exclusively use chasmogamous seeds for outplanting, which are predicted to perform better in novel environments due to their greater genetic diversity. Meanwhile, cleistogamous seeds may exhibit greater local adaptation to the conditions in which the maternal plant exists. We performed a common garden experiment at two sites in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, to assess the influence of seed type and source population (eight populations from a latitudinal gradient) on seedling emergence and found no evidence of local adaptation for either seed type. Cleistogamous seeds outperformed chasmogamous seeds, regardless of whether seeds were sourced directly from the common gardens (local seeds) or other populations (nonlocal seeds). Furthermore, average seed weight had a strong positive effect on seedling emergence, despite the fact that chasmogamous seeds had significantly greater mass than cleistogamous seeds. At one common garden, we observed that seeds of both types sourced from north of our planting site performed significantly better than local or southern‐sourced seeds. We also found a significant seed type and distance‐dependent interaction, with cleistogamous seedling emergence peaking approximately 125 km from the garden. These results suggest that cleistogamous seeds should be considered for greater use inD. californicarestoration.

     
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  3. Bateiha, S. ; Cobbs, G. (Ed.)
    This study highlights parents’ linguistic capital and how they use specific languaging practices to facilitate their child’s learning. One bilingual family used multiple languages to facilitate their son’s learning through two mathematical tasks. Using Dominguez’ conceptual framework of bilingualism, we analyzed these conversations to look for natural units of communication and its relation towards their problem solving goals. The data shows the family would switch from English to Spanish to help their child surpass several barriers during their mathematical activities. Leveraging bilingual languaging practices can counter the deficit lens with which minoritized students are typically viewed. 
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  4. Abstract

    Einstein’s general theory of relativity from 19151remains the most successful description of gravitation. From the 1919 solar eclipse2to the observation of gravitational waves3, the theory has passed many crucial experimental tests. However, the evolving concepts of dark matter and dark energy illustrate that there is much to be learned about the gravitating content of the universe. Singularities in the general theory of relativity and the lack of a quantum theory of gravity suggest that our picture is incomplete. It is thus prudent to explore gravity in exotic physical systems. Antimatter was unknown to Einstein in 1915. Dirac’s theory4appeared in 1928; the positron was observed5in 1932. There has since been much speculation about gravity and antimatter. The theoretical consensus is that any laboratory mass must be attracted6by the Earth, although some authors have considered the cosmological consequences if antimatter should be repelled by matter7–10. In the general theory of relativity, the weak equivalence principle (WEP) requires that all masses react identically to gravity, independent of their internal structure. Here we show that antihydrogen atoms, released from magnetic confinement in the ALPHA-g apparatus, behave in a way consistent with gravitational attraction to the Earth. Repulsive ‘antigravity’ is ruled out in this case. This experiment paves the way for precision studies of the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration between anti-atoms and the Earth to test the WEP.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Soil is the largest terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir and a large potential source or sink of atmospheric CO. Soil C models have usually focused on refining representations of microbe‐mediated C turnover, whereas lateral hydrologic C fluxes have largely been ignored at regional and global scales. Here, we provide large‐scale estimates of hydrologic export of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its effects on bulk soil C turnover rates. Hydrologic export of SOC ranged from nearly 0 to 12 g C m−2yr−1amongst catchments across the conterminous United States, and total export across this region was 14 (95% CI 4‐41) Tg C/yr. The proportion of soil C turnover attributed to hydrologic export ranged from <1% to 20%, and averaged 0.97% (weighted by catchment area; 95% CI 0.3%–2.6%), with the lowest values in arid catchments. Ignoring hydrologic export in C cycle models might lead to overestimation of SOC stocks by 0.3–2.6 Pg C for the conterminous United States. High uncertainty in hydrologic C export fluxes and potentially substantial effects on soil C turnover illustrate the need for research aimed at improving our mechanistic understanding of the processes regulating hydrologic C export.

     
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  7. The fourth orbit of Parker Solar Probe (PSP) reached heliocentric distances down to 27.9 R ⊙ , allowing solar wind turbulence and acceleration mechanisms to be studied in situ closer to the Sun than previously possible. The turbulence properties were found to be significantly different in the inbound and outbound portions of PSP’s fourth solar encounter, which was likely due to the proximity to the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) in the outbound period. Near the HCS, in the streamer belt wind, the turbulence was found to have lower amplitudes, higher magnetic compressibility, a steeper magnetic field spectrum (with a spectral index close to –5/3 rather than –3/2), a lower Alfvénicity, and a ‘1∕ f ’ break at much lower frequencies. These are also features of slow wind at 1 au, suggesting the near-Sun streamer belt wind to be the prototypical slow solar wind. The transition in properties occurs at a predicted angular distance of ≈4° from the HCS, suggesting ≈8° as the full-width of the streamer belt wind at these distances. While the majority of the Alfvénic turbulence energy fluxes measured by PSP are consistent with those required for reflection-driven turbulence models of solar wind acceleration, the fluxes in the streamer belt are significantly lower than the model predictions, suggesting that additional mechanisms are necessary to explain the acceleration of the streamer belt solar wind. 
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  8. Abstract

    Drawing connections between heliospheric spacecraft and solar wind sources is a vital step in understanding the evolution of the solar corona into the solar wind and contextualizing in situ timeseries. Furthermore, making advanced predictions of this linkage for ongoing heliospheric missions, such as Parker Solar Probe (Parker), is necessary for achieving useful coordinated remote observations and maximizing scientific return. The general procedure for estimating such connectivity is straightforward (i.e., magnetic field line tracing in a coronal model) but validating the resulting estimates is difficult due to the lack of an independent ground truth and limited model constraints. In its most recent orbits, Parker has reached perihelia of 13.3Rand moreover travels extremely fast prograde relative to the solar surface, covering over 120° longitude in 3 days. Here we present footpoint predictions and subsequent validation efforts for Parker Encounter 10, the first of the 13.3Rorbits, which occurred in November 2021. We show that the longitudinal dependence of in situ plasma data from these novel orbits provides a powerful method of footpoint validation. With reference to other encounters, we also illustrate that the conditions under which source mapping is most accurate for near‐ecliptic spacecraft (such as Parker) occur when solar activity is low, but also require that the heliospheric current sheet is strongly warped by mid‐latitude or equatorial coronal holes. Lastly, we comment on the large‐scale coronal structure implied by the Encounter 10 mapping, highlighting an empirical equatorial cut of the Alfvèn surface consisting of localized protrusions above unipolar magnetic separatrices.

     
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  9. A language supporting polymorphism is a boon to programmers: they can express complex ideas once and reuse functions in a variety of situations. However, polymorphism is a pain for compilers tasked with producing efficient code that manipulates concrete values. This paper presents a new intermediate language that allows for efficient static compilation, while still supporting flexible polymorphism. Specifically, it permits polymorphism over not only the types of values, but also the representation of values, the arity of primitive machine functions, and the evaluation order of arguments---all three of which are useful in practice. The key insight is to encode information about a value's calling convention in the kind of its type, rather than in the type itself. 
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