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  1. Deep learning is a promising approach to early DRV (Design Rule Violation) prediction. However, non-deterministic parallel routing hampers model training and degrades prediction accuracy. In this work, we propose a stochastic approach, called LGC-Net, to solve this problem. In this approach, we develop new techniques of Gaussian random field layer and focal likelihood loss function to seamlessly integrate Log Gaussian Cox process with deep learning. This approach provides not only statistical regression results but also classification ones with different thresholds without retraining. Experimental results with noisy training data on industrial designs demonstrate that LGC-Net achieves significantly better accuracy of DRV density prediction than prior arts. 
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  2. Abstract

    The Earth's magnetosheath and cusps emit soft X‐rays due to the charge exchange between highly charged solar wind ions and exospheric hydrogen atoms. The Lunar Environment Heliospheric X‐ray Imager and Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer missions are scheduled to image the Earth's dayside magnetosphere system in soft X‐rays to investigate global‐scale magnetopause reconnection modes under varying solar wind conditions. The exospheric neutral hydrogen density distribution, especially the value of this density at the subsolar magnetopause is of particular interest for understanding X‐ray emissions near this boundary. This paper estimates the exospheric density during solar minimum using the X‐ray Multimirror Mission (XMM) astrophysics observatory. We selected an event on 12 November 2008 from the XMM data archive, which detects soft X‐rays of magnetosheath origin while solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field conditions are relatively constant. During the event the location of the magnetopause was measured in situ by the THEMIS mission, thus the location of the solar wind ions responsible for the magnetosheath emission is well constrained by observation. We estimated the exospheric density using the Open Geospace Global Circulation Model (OpenGGCM) and a spherically symmetric exosphere model. The ratio of the magnetosheath plasma flux between the OpenGGCM model and the THEMIS, was nearly 1, which means the magnetohydrodynamic model reasonably reproduces the magnetosheath plasma conditions. The OpenGGCM magnetosheath parameters were used to deconvolve soft X‐rays of exospheric origin from the XMM signal. The lower‐limit of the exospheric density of this solar minimum event is 36.8 ± 11.7 cm−3at 10 REsubsolar location.

     
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    The production of strange hadrons ($$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0, Λ, Ξ±, and Ω±), baryon-to-meson ratios (Λ/$$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0, Ξ/$$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0, and Ω/$$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0), and baryon-to-baryon ratios (Ξ/Λ, Ω/Λ, and Ω/Ξ) associated with jets and the underlying event were measured as a function of transverse momentum (pT) in pp collisions at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV and p Pb collisions at$$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$sNN= 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The inclusive production of the same particle species and the corresponding ratios are also reported. The production of multi-strange hadrons, Ξ±and Ω±, and their associated particle ratios in jets and in the underlying event are measured for the first time. In both pp and p–Pb collisions, the baryon-to-meson and baryon-to-baryon yield ratios measured in jets differ from the inclusive particle production for low and intermediate hadronpT(0.6–6 GeV/c). Ratios measured in the underlying event are in turn similar to those measured for inclusive particle production. In pp collisions, the particle production in jets is compared with Pythia8 predictions with three colour-reconnection implementation modes. None of them fully reproduces the data in the measured hadronpTregion. The maximum deviation is observed for Ξ±and Ω±which reaches a factor of about six. The event multiplicity dependence is further investigated in p−Pb collisions. In contrast to what is observed in the underlying event, there is no significant event-multiplicity dependence for particle production in jets. The presented measurements provide novel constraints on hadronisation and its Monte Carlo description. In particular, they demonstrate that the fragmentation of jets alone is insufficient to describe the strange and multi-strange particle production in hadronic collisions at LHC energies.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  7. Abstract A newly developed observable for correlations between symmetry planes, which characterize the direction of the anisotropic emission of produced particles, is measured in Pb–Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_\text {NN}}$$ s NN  = 2.76 TeV with ALICE. This so-called Gaussian Estimator allows for the first time the study of these quantities without the influence of correlations between different flow amplitudes. The centrality dependence of various correlations between two, three and four symmetry planes is presented. The ordering of magnitude between these symmetry plane correlations is discussed and the results of the Gaussian Estimator are compared with measurements of previously used estimators. The results utilizing the new estimator lead to significantly smaller correlations than reported by studies using the Scalar Product method. Furthermore, the obtained symmetry plane correlations are compared to state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model calculations for the evolution of heavy-ion collisions. While the model predictions provide a qualitative description of the data, quantitative agreement is not always observed, particularly for correlators with significant non-linear response of the medium to initial state anisotropies of the collision system. As these results provide unique and independent information, their usage in future Bayesian analysis can further constrain our knowledge on the properties of the QCD matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  8. Abstract

    A study of multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of inclusive photons measured in pp and p–Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon–nucleon collision of$$\sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}}~=~5.02$$sNN=5.02 TeV using the ALICE detector in the forward pseudorapidity region 2.3 $$<~\eta _\textrm{lab} ~<$$<ηlab< 3.9 is presented. Measurements in p–Pb collisions are reported for two beam configurations in which the directions of the proton and lead ion beam were reversed. The pseudorapidity distributions in p–Pb collisions are obtained for seven centrality classes which are defined based on different event activity estimators, i.e., the charged-particle multiplicity measured at midrapidity as well as the energy deposited in a calorimeter at beam rapidity. The inclusive photon multiplicity distributions for both pp and p–Pb collisions are described by double negative binomial distributions. The pseudorapidity distributions of inclusive photons are compared to those of charged particles at midrapidity in pp collisions and for different centrality classes in p–Pb collisions. The results are compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators. None of the generators considered in this paper reproduces the inclusive photon multiplicity distributions in the reported multiplicity range. The pseudorapidity distributions are, however, better described by the same generators.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  9. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    This article reports measurements of the angle between differently defined jet axes in pp collisions at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 5.02 TeV carried out by the ALICE Collaboration. Charged particles at midrapidity are clustered into jets with resolution parametersR= 0.2 and 0.4. The jet axis, before and after Soft Drop grooming, is compared to the jet axis from the Winner-Takes-All (WTA) recombination scheme. The angle between these axes, ∆Raxis, probes a wide phase space of the jet formation and evolution, ranging from the initial high-momentum-transfer scattering to the hadronization process. The ∆Raxisobservable is presented for 20<$$ {p}_{\textrm{T}}^{\textrm{ch}\ \textrm{jet}} $$pTchjet<100 GeV/c, and compared to predictions from the PYTHIA 8 and Herwig 7 event generators. The distributions can also be calculated analytically with a leading hadronization correction related to the non-perturbative component of the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) evolution kernel. Comparisons to analytical predictions at next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy with leading hadronization correction implemented from experimental extractions of the CSS kernel in Drell-Yan measurements are presented. The analytical predictions describe the measured data within 20% in the perturbative regime, with surprising agreement in the non-perturbative regime as well. These results are compatible with the universality of the CSS kernel in the context of jet substructure.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024