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  1. Abstract

    In recent years, correlated insulating states, unconventional superconductivity, and topologically non-trivial phases have all been observed in several moiré heterostructures. However, understanding of the physical mechanisms behind these phenomena is hampered by the lack of local electronic structure data. Here, we use scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy to demonstrate how the interplay between correlation, topology, and local atomic structure determines the behaviour of electron-doped twisted monolayer–bilayer graphene. Through gate- and magnetic field-dependent measurements, we observe local spectroscopic signatures indicating a quantum anomalous Hall insulating state with a total Chern number of ±2 at a doping level of three electrons per moiré unit cell. We show that the sign of the Chern number and associated magnetism can be electrostatically switched only over a limited range of twist angle and sample hetero-strain values. This results from a competition between the orbital magnetization of filled bulk bands and chiral edge states, which is sensitive to strain-induced distortions in the moiré superlattice.

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  2. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The discovery of interaction-driven insulating and superconducting phases in moiré van der Waals heterostructures has sparked considerable interest in understanding the novel correlated physics of these systems. While a significant number of studies have focused on twisted bilayer graphene, correlated insulating states and a superconductivity-like transition up to 12 K have been reported in recent transport measurements of twisted double bilayer graphene. Here we present a scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study of gate-tunable twisted double bilayer graphene devices. We observe splitting of the van Hove singularity peak by ~20 meV at half-filling of the conduction flat band, with a corresponding reduction of the local density of states at the Fermi level. By mapping the tunneling differential conductance we show that this correlated system exhibits energetically split states that are spatially delocalized throughout the different regions in the moiré unit cell, inconsistent with order originating solely from onsite Coulomb repulsion within strongly-localized orbitals. We have performed self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations that suggest exchange-driven spontaneous symmetry breaking in the degenerate conduction flat band is the origin of the observed correlated state. Our results provide new insight into the nature of electron-electron interactions in twisted double bilayer graphene and related moiré systems. 
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  5. Abstract

    Surface plasmons, collective electromagnetic excitations coupled to conduction electron oscillations, enable the manipulation of light–matter interactions at the nanoscale. Plasmon dispersion of metallic structures depends sensitively on their dimensionality and has been intensively studied for fundamental physics as well as applied technologies. Here, we report possible evidence for gate-tunable hybrid plasmons from the dimensionally mixed coupling between one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) graphene. In contrast to the carrier density-independent 1D Luttinger liquid plasmons in bare metallic carbon nanotubes, plasmon wavelengths in the 1D-2D heterostructure are modulated by 75% via electrostatic gating while retaining the high figures of merit of 1D plasmons. We propose a theoretical model to describe the electromagnetic interaction between plasmons in nanotubes and graphene, suggesting plasmon hybridization as a possible origin for the observed large plasmon modulation. The mixed-dimensional plasmonic heterostructures may enable diverse designs of tunable plasmonic nanodevices.

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  6. null (Ed.)
    Two-dimensional heterostructures composed of layers with slightly different lattice vectors exhibit new periodic structure known as moiré lattices, which, in turn, can support novel correlated and topological phenomena. Moreover, moiré superstructures can emerge from multiple misaligned moiré lattices or inhomogeneous strain distributions, offering additional degrees of freedom in tailoring electronic structure. High-resolution imaging of the moiré lattices and superstructures is critical for understanding the emerging physics. Here, we report the imaging of moiré lattices and superstructures in graphene-based samples under ambient conditions using an ultrahigh-resolution implementation of scanning microwave impedance microscopy. Although the probe tip has a gross radius of ~100 nm, spatial resolution better than 5 nm is achieved, which allows direct visualization of the structural details in moiré lattices and the composite super-moiré. We also demonstrate artificial synthesis of novel superstructures, including the Kagome moiré arising from the interplay between different layers. 
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