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  1. Context. Pulsational pair-instability supernovae (PPISNe) and pair instability supernovae (PISNe) are the result of a thermonuclear runaway in the presence of a background electron-positron pair plasma. As such, their evolution and resultant black hole masses could possibly be affected by screening corrections due to the electron pair plasma. Aims. The sensitivity of PISNe and PPISNe to relativistic weak screening has been explored. Methods. In this paper a weak screening model that includes effects from relativistic pair production has been developed and applied at temperatures approaching and exceeding the threshold for pair production. This screening model replaces “classical” screening commonly used in astrophysics. Modifications to the weak screening electron Debye length were incorporated in a computationally tractable analytic form. Results. In PPISNe the BH masses were found to increase somewhat at high temperatures, though this increase is small. The BH collapse is also found to occur at earlier times, and the pulsational morphology also changes. In addition to the resultant BH mass, the sensitivity to the screening model of the pulsational period, the pulse structure, the PPISN-to-PISN transition, and the shift in the BH mass gap has been analyzed. The dependence of the composition of the ejected mass was also examined. 
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  2. We review the computation of and associated uncertainties in the current understanding of the relic neutrino background due to core-collapse supernovae, black hole formation and neutron star merger events. We consider the current status of uncertainties due to the nuclear equation of state (EoS), the progenitor masses, the source supernova neutrino spectrum, the cosmological star formation rate, the stellar initial mass function, neutrino oscillations, and neutrino self-interactions. We summarize the current viability of future neutrino detectors to distinguish the nuclear EoS and the temperature of supernova neutrinos via the detected relic supernova neutrino spectrum. 
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  3. For searching beyond Standard Model physics, stars are laboratories which complement terrestrial experiments. Massless neutrinos in the Standard Model of particle physics cannot have a magnetic moment, but massive neutrinos have a finite magnetic moment in the minimal extension of the Standard Model. Large extra dimensions are a possible solution of the hierarchy problem. Both of these provide additional energy loss channels in stellar interiors via the electromagnetic interaction and radiation into extra dimensions, respectively, and thus affect stellar evolution. We perform simulations of stellar evolution with such additional energy losses and find that they eliminate the blue loops in the evolution of intermediate-mass stars. The existence of Cepheid stars can be used to constrain the neutrino magnetic moment and large extra dimensions. In order for Cepheids to exist, the neutrino magnetic moment should be smaller than the range ∼ 2×10−10 to 4×10−11µB , where µB is the Bohr magneton, and the fundamental scale in the (4+2)-spacetime should be larger than ∼ 2 to 5 TeV, depending on the rate of the 12C(α, γ) 16O reaction. The fundamental scale also has strong dependence on the metallicity. This value of the magnetic moment is in the range explored in the reactor experiments, but higher than the limit inferred from globular clusters. Similarly the fundamental scale value we constrain corresponds to a size of the compactified dimensions comparable to those explored in the torsion balance experiments, but is smaller than the limits inferred from collider experiments and low-mass stars. 
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  4. Since 7Li is easily destroyed in low temperatures, the surface lithium abundance decreases as stars evolve. This is supported by the lithium depletion observed in the atmosphere of most red giants. However, recent studies show that almost all of red clump stars have high lithium abundances A(Li)>-0.9, which are not predicted by the standard theory of the low-mass stellar evolution. In order to reconcile the discrepancy between the observations and the model, we consider an additional energy loss induced by a neutrino magnetic moment. A(Li) slightly increases near the tip of the red giant branch even in the standard model with thermohaline mixing because of the 7Be production by the Cameron-Fowler mechanism, but the resultant 7Li abundance is much lower than the observed values. We find that the production of 7Be becomes more active if the neutrino magnetic moment is invoked, because themohaline mixing becomes more efficient and a heavier helium core is formed because of the delay of the helium flash. The discrepancy is mitigated when the neutrino magnetic moment of (2-5)*10^{-12}mu_B is applied, where mu_B is the Bohr magneton. 
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  5. null (Ed.)