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  1. null (Ed.)
    Due to the dense deployment of a small base station (SBS), wired backhauling is not always available, nor it is efficient. Therefore mmWaves are introduced to serve as backhauling links that offer high backhauling throughput and low CAPEX. However, mmWaves suffer from a high attenuation rate as the distance between SBSs and a macro base station (MBS) increases, which can severely degrade the system performance. Therefore, it is more efficient to use some SBSs to aggregate from different SBSs to MBS. On the other hand, densely deployed SBSs with wireless backhauling can cause high energy consumption in the system. In this work, we present a new network model in which SBSs are able to harvest energy from a renewable source and utilize it for backhauling and their associate UEs. A mathematical Optimization problem is formulated to solve UEs association, dynamic sleeping, backhauling, and transmission power. Moreover, due to the complexity of the formulated problem, a heuristic algorithm is introduced. Namely, a heuristic backhauling and dynamic sleeping (HBDS) algorithm is introduced to decomposes the formulated problem into two parts and solve it iteratively. Finally, computer simulation results that demonstrate the model’s performance are presented for comparison between optimal solution and HBDS, which shows that HBDS has better computation efficiency with minimum performance difference. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Recently, there has been a flurry of research on the use of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) in wireless networks to create dynamic radio environments. In this paper, we investigate the use of an RIS panel to improve bi-directional communications. Assuming that the RIS will be located on the facade of a building, we propose to connect it to a solar panel that harvests energy to be used to power the RIS panel’s smart controller and reflecting elements. Therefore, we present a novel framework to optimally decide the transmit power of each user and the number of elements that will be used to reflect the signal of any two communicating pair in the system (user-user or base station-user). An optimization problem is formulated to jointly minimize a scalarized function of the energy of the communicating pair and the RIS panel and to find the optimal number of reflecting elements used by each user. Although the formulated problem is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem, the optimal solution is found by linearizing the non-linear constraints. Besides, a more efficient close to the optimal solution is found using Bender decomposition. Simulation results show that the proposed model is capable of delivering the minimum rate of each user even if line-of-sight communication is not achievable. 
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  3. null (Ed.)