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  1. Abstract

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) serendipitously detected H2O $J_{K_{\rm a}, K_{\rm c}} = 10_{2,9}$–93, 6 emission at 321 GHz in NGC 1052. This is the first submillimeter maser detection in a radio galaxy and the most luminous 321 GHz H2O maser known to-date with the isotropic luminosity of $1090\, L_{\odot }$. The line profile consists of a broad velocity component with FWHM = 208 ± 12 km s−1 straddling the systemic velocity and a narrow component with FWHM = 44 ± 3 km s−1 blueshifted by 160 km s−1. The profile is significantly different from the known 22 GHz 61, 6–52, 3 maser which shows a broad profile redshifted by 193 km s−1. The submillimeter maser is spatially unresolved with a synthesized beam of ${0{^{\prime \prime}_{.}}68} \times {0{^{\prime \prime}_{.}}56}$ and coincides with the continuum core position within 12 pc. These results indicate amplification of the continuum emission through high-temperature (>1000 K) and dense [n(H2O) > 104 cm−3] molecular gas in front of the core.

  2. Abstract

    We characterize the accuracy of linear-polarization mosaics made using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). First, we observed the bright, highly linearly polarized blazar 3C 279 at Bands 3, 5, 6, and 7 (3 mm, 1.6 mm, 1.3 mm, and 0.87 mm, respectively). At each band, we measured the blazar’s polarization on an 11 × 11 grid of evenly spaced offset pointings covering the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) area of the primary beam. After applying calibration solutions derived from the on-axis pointing of 3C 279 to all of the on- and off-axis data, we find that the residual polarization errors across the primary beam are similar at all frequencies: the residual errors in linear polarization fractionPfracand polarization position angleχare ≲0.001 (≲0.1% of StokesI) and ≲ 1° near the center of the primary beam; the errors increase to ∼0.003–0.005 (∼0.3%–0.5% of StokesI) and ∼1°–5° near the FWHM as a result of the asymmetric beam patterns in the (linearly polarized)QandUmaps. We see the expected double-lobed “beam squint” pattern in the circular polarization (StokesV) maps. Second, to test the polarization accuracy in a typical ALMA project, we performed observations of continuum linear polarization toward the Kleinmann–Low nebula in Orion (Orion-KL) using several mosaic patterns at Bands 3more »and 6. We show that after mosaicking, the residual off-axis errors decrease as a result of overlapping multiple pointings. Finally, we compare the ALMA mosaics with an archival 1.3 mm Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy polarization mosaic of Orion-KL and find good consistency in the polarization patterns.

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