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Creators/Authors contains: "Kandemir, Mahmut Taylan"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 6, 2023
  2. The high-profile Spectre attack and its variants have revealed that speculative execution may leave secret-dependent footprints in the cache, allowing an attacker to learn confidential data. However, existing static side-channel detectors either ignore speculative execution, leading to false negatives, or lack a precise cache model, leading to false positives. In this paper, somewhat surprisingly, we show that it is challenging to develop a speculation-aware static analysis with precise cache models: a combination of existing works does not necessarily catch all cache side channels. Motivated by this observation, we present a new semantic definition of security against cache-based side-channel attacks, called Speculative-Aware noninterference (SANI), which is applicable to a variety of attacks and cache models. We also develop SpecSafe to detect the violations of SANI. Unlike other speculation-aware symbolic executors, SpecSafe employs a novel program transformation so that SANI can be soundly checked by speculation-unaware side-channel detectors. SpecSafe is shown to be both scalable and accurate on a set of moderately sized benchmarks, including commonly used cryptography libraries.
  3. There is an ongoing trend to increasingly offload inference tasks, such as CNNs, to edge devices in many IoT scenarios. As energy harvesting is an attractive IoT power source, recent ReRAM-based CNN accelerators have been designed for operation on harvested energy. When addressing the instability problems of harvested energy, prior optimization techniques often assume that the load is fixed, overlooking the close interactions among input power, computational load, and circuit efficiency, or adapt the dynamic load to match the just-in-time incoming power under a simple harvesting architecture with no intermediate energy storage. Targeting a more efficient harvesting architecture equipped with both energy storage and energy delivery modules, this paper is the first effort to target whole system, end-to-end efficiency for an energy harvesting ReRAM-based accelerator. First, we model the relationships among ReRAM load power, DC-DC converter efficiency, and power failure overhead. Then, a maximum computation progress tracking scheme ( MaxTracker ) is proposed to achieve a joint optimization of the whole system by tuning the load power of the ReRAM-based accelerator. Specifically, MaxTracker accommodates both continuous and intermittent computing schemes and provides dynamic ReRAM load according to harvesting scenarios. We evaluate MaxTracker over four input power scenarios, and the experimentalmore »results show average speedups of 38.4%/40.3% (up to 51.3%/84.4%), over a full activation scheme (with energy storage) and order-of-magnitude speedups over the recently proposed (energy storage-less) ResiRCA technique. Furthermore, we also explore MaxTracker in combination with the Capybara reconfigurable capacitor approach to offer more flexible tuners and thus further boost the system performance.« less
  4. Recent works from both hardware and software domains offer various optimizations that try to take advantage of near data computing (NDC) opportunities. While the results from these works indicate performance improvements of various magnitudes, the existing literature lacks a detailed quantification of the potential of NDC and analysis of compiler optimizations on tapping into that potential. This paper first presents an analysis of the NDC potential when executing multithreaded applications on manycore platforms. It then presents two compiler schemes designed to take advantage of NDC. The first of these schemes try to increase the amount of computation that can be performed in a hardware component, whereas the second compiler strategy strikes a balance between optimizing NDC and exploiting data reuse, by being more selective on when to perform NDC (even if the opportunity presents itself) and how. The collected experimental results on a 5×5 manycore system reveal that our first and second compiler schemes improve the overall performance of our multithreaded applications by, respectively, 22.5% and 25.2%, on average. Furthermore, these two compiler schemes are only 6.8% and 4.1% worse than an oracle scheme that makes the best near data computing decisions for each and every computation.
  5. There is an increasing demand for performing machine learning tasks, such as human activity recognition (HAR) on emerging ultra-low-power internet of things (IoT) platforms. Recent works show substantial efficiency boosts from performing inference tasks directly on the IoT nodes rather than merely transmitting raw sensor data. However, the computation and power demands of deep neural network (DNN) based inference pose significant challenges when executed on the nodes of an energy-harvesting wireless sensor network (EH-WSN). Moreover, managing inferences requiring responses from multiple energy-harvesting nodes imposes challenges at the system level in addition to the constraints at each node. This paper presents a novel scheduling policy along with an adaptive ensemble learner to efficiently perform HAR on a distributed energy-harvesting body area network. Our proposed policy, Origin, strategically ensures efficient and accurate individual inference execution at each sensor node by using a novel activity-aware scheduling approach. It also leverages the continuous nature of human activity when coordinating and aggregating results from all the sensor nodes to improve final classification accuracy. Further, Origin proposes an adaptive ensemble learner to personalize the optimizations based on each individual user. Experimental results using two different HAR data-sets show Origin, while running on harvested energy, to bemore »at least 2.5% more accurate than a classical battery-powered energy aware HAR classifier continuously operating at the same average power.« less