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  1. Abstract Magnetized plasma interactions are ubiquitous in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Various physical effects have been shown to be important within colliding plasma flows influenced by opposing magnetic fields, however, experimental verification of the mechanisms within the interaction region has remained elusive. Here we discuss a laser-plasma experiment whereby experimental results verify that Biermann battery generated magnetic fields are advected by Nernst flows and anisotropic pressure effects dominate these flows in a reconnection region. These fields are mapped using time-resolved proton probing in multiple directions. Various experimental, modelling and analytical techniques demonstrate the importance of anisotropic pressure in semi-collisional, high-more »β plasmas, causing a reduction in the magnitude of the reconnecting fields when compared to resistive processes. Anisotropic pressure dynamics are crucial in collisionless plasmas, but are often neglected in collisional plasmas. We show pressure anisotropy to be essential in maintaining the interaction layer, redistributing magnetic fields even for semi-collisional, high energy density physics (HEDP) regimes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Given the highly empirical nature of research in cloud computing, networked systems, and related fields, testbeds play an important role in the research ecosystem. In this paper, we cover one such facility, CloudLab, which supports systems research by providing raw access to programmable hardware, enabling research at large scales, and creating as hared platform for repeatable research.We present our experiences designing CloudLab and operating it for four years, serving nearly 4,000 users who have run over 79,000 experiments on 2,250 servers, switches, and other pieces of datacenter equipment. From this experience,we draw lessons organized around two themes. The first setmore »comes from analysis of data regarding the use of CloudLab:how users interact with it, what they use it for, and the implications for facility design and operation. Our second set of lessons comes from looking at the ways that algorithms used“under the hood,” such as resource allocation, have important—and sometimes unexpected—effects on user experience and behavior. These lessons can be of value to the designers and operators of IaaS facilities in general, systems testbeds in particular, and users who have a stake in understanding how these systems are built.« less
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  6. Abstract The coherent photoproduction of $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ and $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′ mesons was measured in ultra-peripheral Pb–Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy $$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm {NN}}}~=~5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  TeV  with the ALICE detector. Charmonia are detected in the central rapidity region for events where the hadronic interactions are strongly suppressed. The $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ is reconstructed using the dilepton ( $$l^{+} l^{-}$$ l + l - ) and proton–antiproton decay channels, while for the $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′   the dilepton and the $$l^{+} l^{-} \pi ^{+} \pi ^{-}$$ l + l - πmore »+ π - decay channels are studied. The analysis is based on an event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 233 $$\mu {\mathrm{b}}^{-1}$$ μ b - 1 . The results are compared with theoretical models for coherent $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ and $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′ photoproduction. The coherent cross section is found to be in a good agreement with models incorporating moderate nuclear gluon shadowing of about 0.64 at a Bjorken- x of around $$6\times 10^{-4}$$ 6 × 10 - 4 , such as the EPS09 parametrization, however none of the models is able to fully describe the rapidity dependence of the coherent $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ cross section including ALICE measurements at forward rapidity. The ratio of $${\uppsi '}$$ ψ ′ to $$\mathrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ coherent photoproduction cross sections was also measured and found to be consistent with the one for photoproduction off protons.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  8. Abstract The production of $$\phi $$ ϕ mesons has been studied in pp collisions at LHC energies with the ALICE detector via the dimuon decay channel in the rapidity region $$2.5< y < 4$$ 2.5 < y < 4 . Measurements of the differential cross section $$\mathrm{d}^2\sigma /\mathrm{d}y \mathrm{d}p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ d 2 σ / d y d p T are presented as a function of the transverse momentum ( $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T ) at the center-of-mass energies $$\sqrt{s}=5.02$$ s = 5.02 , 8 and 13 TeV and compared with the ALICE results at midrapidity. The differential cross sections at $$\sqrt{s}=5.02$$more »s = 5.02 and 13 TeV are also studied in several rapidity intervals as a function of $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T , and as a function of rapidity in three $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T intervals. A hardening of the $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T -differential cross section with the collision energy is observed, while, for a given energy, $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T spectra soften with increasing rapidity and, conversely, rapidity distributions get slightly narrower at increasing $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T . The new results, complementing the published measurements at $$\sqrt{s}=2.76$$ s = 2.76 and 7 TeV, allow one to establish the energy dependence of $$\phi $$ ϕ meson production and to compare the measured cross sections with phenomenological models. None of the considered models manages to describe the evolution of the cross section with $$p_{\mathrm {T}}$$ p T and rapidity at all the energies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
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