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Creators/Authors contains: "Karakalos, Stavros G."

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  1. Herein, we report structural, computational, and conductivity studies on urea-directed self-assembled iodinated triphenylamine (TPA) derivatives. Despite numerous reports of conductive TPAs, the challenges of correlating their solid-state assembly with charge transport properties hinder the efficient design of new materials. In this work, we compare the assembled structures of a methylene urea bridged dimer of di-iodo TPA (1) and the corresponding methylene urea di-iodo TPA monomer (2) with a di-iodo mono aldehyde (3) control. These modifications lead to needle shaped crystals for 1 and 2 that are organized by urea hydrogen bonding, π⋯π stacking, I⋯I, and I⋯π interactions as determined by SC-XRD, Hirshfeld surface analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The long needle shaped crystals were robust enough to measure the conductivity by two contact probe methods with 2 exhibiting higher conductivity values (∼6 × 10 −7 S cm −1 ) compared to 1 (1.6 × 10 −8 S cm −1 ). Upon UV-irradiation, 1 formed low quantities of persistent radicals with the simple methylurea 2 displaying less radical formation. The electronic properties of 1 were further investigated using valence band XPS, which revealed a significant shift in the valence band upon UV irradiation (0.5–1.9 eV), indicating the potential of thesemore »materials as dopant free p-type hole transporters. The electronic structure calculations suggest that the close packing of TPA promotes their electronic coupling and allows effective charge carrier transport. Our results show that ionic additives significantly improve the conductivity up to ∼2.0 × 10 −6 S cm −1 in thin films, enabling their implementation in functional devices such as perovskite or solid-state dye sensitized solar cells.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 10, 2023
  2. Metal node engineering in combination with modularity, topological diversity, and porosity of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) could advance energy and optoelectronic sectors. In this study, we focus on MOFs with multinuclear heterometallic nodes for establishing metal−property trends, i.e. , connecting atomic scale changes with macroscopic material properties by utilization of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, conductivity measurements, X-ray photoelectron and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies, and density functional theory calculations. The results of Bader charge analysis and studies employing the Voronoi–Dirichlet partition of crystal structures are also presented. As an example of frameworks with different nodal arrangements, we have chosen MOFs with mononuclear, binuclear, and pentanuclear nodes, primarily consisting of first-row transition metals, that are incorporated in HHTP-, BTC-, and NIP-systems, respectively (HHTP 3− = triphenylene-2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaone; BTC 3− = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate; and NIP 2− = 5-nitroisophthalate). Through probing framework electronic profiles, we demonstrate structure–property relationships, and also highlight the necessity for both comprehensive analysis of trends in metal properties, and novel avenues for preparation of heterometallic multinuclear isoreticular structures, which are critical components for on-demand tailoring of properties in heterometallic systems.