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  1. null (Ed.)
    Nanopore probing of molecular level transport of proteins is strongly influenced by electrolyte type, concentration, and solution pH. As a result, electrolyte chemistry and applied voltage are critical for protein transport and impact, for example, capture rate ( C R ), transport mechanism ( i.e. , electrophoresis, electroosmosis or diffusion), and 3D conformation ( e.g. , chaotropic vs. kosmotropic effects). In this study, we explored these using 0.5–4 M LiCl and KCl electrolytes with holo-human serum transferrin (hSTf) protein as the model protein in both low (±50 mV) and high (±400 mV) electric field regimes. Unlike in KCl, where events were purely electrophoretic, the transport in LiCl transitioned from electrophoretic to electroosmotic with decreasing salt concentration while intermediate concentrations ( i.e. , 2 M and 2.5 M) were influenced by diffusion. Segregating diffusion-limited capture rate ( R diff ) into electrophoretic ( R diff,EP ) and electroosmotic ( R diff,EO ) components provided an approach to calculate the zeta-potential of hSTf ( ζ hSTf ) with the aid of C R and zeta potential of the nanopore surface ( ζ pore ) with ( ζ pore – ζ hSTf ) governing the transport mechanism. Scrutinization of the conventional excluded volume model revealed its shortcomings in capturing surface contributions and a new model was then developed to fit the translocation characteristics of proteins. 
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  2. A nanopore can be fairly—but uncharitably—described as simply a nanofluidic channel through a thin membrane. Even this simple structural description holds utility and underpins a range of applications. Yet significant excitement for nanopore science is more readily ignited by the role of nanopores as enabling tools for biomedical science. Nanopore techniques offer single-molecule sensing without the need for chemical labelling, since in most nanopore implementations, matter is its own label through its size, charge, and chemical functionality. Nanopores have achieved considerable prominence for single-molecule DNA sequencing. The predominance of this application, though, can overshadow their established use for nanoparticle characterization and burgeoning use for protein analysis, among other application areas. Analyte scope continues to be expanded and with increasing analyte complexity, success will increasingly hinge on control over nanopore surface chemistry to tune the nanopore, itself, and to moderate analyte transport. Carbohydrates are emerging as the latest high-profile target of nanopore science. Their tremendous chemical and structural complexity means that they challenge conventional chemical analysis methods and thus present a compelling target for unique nanopore characterization capabilities. Furthermore, they offer molecular diversity for probing nanopore operation and sensing mechanisms. This article thus focuses on two roles of chemistry in nanopore science: its use to provide exquisite control over nanopore performance, and how analyte properties can place stringent demands on nanopore chemistry. Expanding the horizons of nanopore science requires increasing consideration of the role of chemistry and increasing sophistication in the realm of chemical control over this nanoscale milieu. 
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  3. Abstract

    Recently, we developed a fabrication method—chemically‐tuned controlled dielectric breakdown (CT‐CDB)—that produces nanopores (through thin silicon nitride membranes) surpassing legacy drawbacks associated with solid‐state nanopores (SSNs). However, the noise characteristics of CT‐CDB nanopores are largely unexplored. In this work, we investigated the 1/fnoise of CT‐CDB nanopores of varying solution pH, electrolyte type, electrolyte concentration, applied voltage, and pore diameter. Our findings indicate that the bulk Hooge parameter (αb) is about an order of magnitude greater than SSNs fabricated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) while the surface Hooge parameter (αs) is ∼3 order magnitude greater. Theαsof CT‐CDB nanopores was ∼5 orders of magnitude greater than theirαb, which suggests that the surface contribution plays a dominant role in 1/fnoise. Experiments with DNA exhibited increasing capture rates with pH up to pH ∼8 followed by a drop at pH ∼9 perhaps due to the onset of electroosmotic force acting against the electrophoretic force. The1/fnoise was also measured for several electrolytes and LiCl was found to outperform NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl. The 1/fnoise was found to increase with the increasing electrolyte concentration and pore diameter. Taken together, the findings of this work suggest the pH approximate 7–8 range to be optimal for DNA sensing with CT‐CDB nanopores.

     
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