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  1. Abstract

    We present observations of population anti-inversion in the 31− 40A+transition of CH3OH (methanol) at 107.013831 GHz toward the Galactic center cloud G0.253+0.016 (“The Brick”). Anti-inversion of molecular level populations can result in absorption lines against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in a phenomenon known as a “dasar.” We model the physical conditions under which the 107 GHz methanol transition dases and determine that dasing occurs at densities below 106cm−3and column densities between 1013and 1016cm−2. We also find that for this transition, dasing does not strongly depend on the gas kinetic temperature. We evaluate the potential of this tool for future deep galaxy surveys. We note that other works have already reported absorption in this transition (e.g., in NGC 253), but we provide the first definitive evidence that it is absorption against the CMB rather than against undetected continuum sources.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Infrared observations of stellar orbits about Sgr A* probe the mass distribution in the inner parsec of the Galaxy and provide definitive evidence for the existence of a massive black hole. However, the infrared astrometry is relative and is tied to the radio emission from Sgr A* using stellar SiO masers that coincide with infrared-bright stars. To support and improve this two-step astrometry, we present new astrometric observations of 15 stellar SiO masers within 2 pc of Sgr A*. Combined with legacy observations spanning 25.8 yr, we reanalyze the relative offsets of these masers from Sgr A* and measure positions and proper motions that are significantly improved compared to the previously published reference frame. Maser positions are corrected for epoch-specific differential aberration, precession, nutation, and solar gravitational deflection. Omitting the supergiant IRS 7, the mean position uncertainties are 0.46 mas and 0.84 mas in R.A. and decl., and the mean proper motion uncertainties are 0.07 mas yr−1and 0.12 mas yr−1, respectively. At a distance of 8.2 kpc, these correspond to position uncertainties of 3.7 and 6.9 au and proper motion uncertainties of 2.7 and 4.6 km s−1. The reference frame stability, the uncertainty in the variance-weighted mean proper motion of the maser ensemble, is 8μas yr−1(0.30 km s−1) in R.A. and 11μas yr−1(0.44 km s−1) in decl., which represents a 2.3-fold improvement over previous work and a new benchmark for the maser-based reference frame.

     
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  3. Context. The 1°.3 (G1.3) and 1°.6 (G1.6) cloud complexes in the central molecular zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy have been proposed to possibly reside at the intersection region of the X1 and X2 orbits for several reasons. This includes the detection of co-spatial low- and high-velocity clouds, high velocity dispersion, high fractional molecular abundances of shock-tracing molecules, and kinetic temperatures that are higher than for usual CMZ clouds. Aims. By investigating the morphology and deriving physical properties as well as chemical composition, we want to find the origin of the turbulent gas and, in particular, whether evidence of an interaction between clouds can be identified. Methods. We mapped both cloud complexes in molecular lines in the frequency range from 85 to 117 GHz with the IRAM 30 m telescope. The APEX 12m telescope was used to observe higher frequency transitions between 210 and 475 GHz from selected molecules that are emitted from higher energy levels. We performed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) modelling of the emission of an ensemble of CH 3 CN lines to derive kinetic temperatures and H 2 volume densities. These were used as starting points for non-LTE modelling of other molecules, for which column densities and abundances were determined and compared with values found for other sources in the CMZ. Results. The kinematic structure of G1.3 reveals an ‘emission bridge’ at intermediate velocities (~150 km s −1 ) connecting low-velocity (~100 km s −1 ) and high-velocity (~180 km s −1 ) gas and an overall fluffy shell-like structure. These may represent observational evidence of cloud-cloud interactions. Low- and high-velocity gas components in G1.6 do not show this type of evidence of an interaction, suggesting that they are spatially separated. We selected three positions in each cloud complex for further analysis. Each position reveals several gas components at various peak velocities and of various line widths. We derived kinetic temperatures of 60–100 K and H 2 volume densities of 10 4 –10 5 cm −3 in both complexes. Molecular abundances relative to H 2 suggest a similar chemistry of the two clouds, which is moreover similar to that of other GC clouds and, especially, agrees well with that of G+0.693 and G−0.11. Conclusions. We conclude that G1.3 may indeed exhibit signs of cloud-cloud interactions. In particular, we propose an interaction of gas that is accreted from the near-side dust lane to the CMZ, with gas pre-existing at this location. Low- and high-velocity components in G1.6 are rather coincidentally observed along the same line of sight. They may be associated with either overshot decelerated gas from the far-side dust line or actual CMZ gas and high-velocity gas moving on a dust lane. These scenarios would be in agreement with numerical simulations. 
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  4. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) sub-kiloparsec- to kiloparsec-scale resolution observations of the [C II], CO (9–8), and OH+(11–01) lines along with their dust continuum emission toward the far-infrared (FIR) luminous quasar SDSS J231038.88+185519.7 atz = 6.0031, to study the interstellar medium distribution, the gas kinematics, and the quasar-host system dynamics. We decompose the intensity maps of the [C II] and CO (9–8) lines and the dust continuum with two-dimensional elliptical Sérsic models. The [C II] brightness follows a flat distribution with a Sérsic index of 0.59. The CO (9–8) line and the dust continuum can be fit with an unresolved nuclear component and an extended Sérsic component with a Sérsic index of ∼1, which may correspond to the emission from an active galactic nucleus dusty molecular torus and a quasar host galaxy, respectively. The different [C II] spatial distribution may be due to the effect of the high dust opacity, which increases the FIR background radiation on the [C II] line, especially in the galaxy center, significantly suppressing the [C II] emission profile. The dust temperature drops with distance from the center. The effective radius of the dust continuum is smaller than that of the line emission and the dust mass surface density, but is consistent with that of the star formation rate surface density. This may indicate that the dust emission is a less robust tracer of the dust and gas distribution but is a decent tracer of the obscured star formation activity. The OH+(11–01) line shows a P-Cygni profile with an absorption at ∼–400 km s−1, which may indicate an outflow with a neutral gas mass of (6.2 ± 1.2)×108Malong the line of sight. We employed a three-dimensional tilted ring model to fit the [C II] and CO (9–8) data cubes. The two lines are both rotation dominated and trace identical disk geometries and gas motions. This suggest that the [C II] and CO (9–8) gas are coplanar and corotating in this quasar host galaxy. The consistent circular velocities measured with [C II] and CO (9–8) lines indicate that these two lines trace a similar gravitational potential. We decompose the circular rotation curve measured from the kinematic model fit to the [C II] line into four matter components (black hole, stars, gas, and dark matter). The quasar-starburst system is dominated by baryonic matter inside the central few kiloparsecs. We constrain the black hole mass to be 2.97+0.51-0.77 × 109M; this is the first time that the dynamical mass of a black hole has been measured atz ∼ 6. This mass is consistent with that determined using the scaling relations from quasar emission lines. A massive stellar component (on the order of 109M) may have already existed when the Universe was only ∼0.93 Gyr old. The relations between the black hole mass and the baryonic mass of this quasar indicate that the central supermassive black hole may have formed before its host galaxy.

     
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  5. Aquatic eddy covariance (AEC) is increasingly being used to study benthic oxygen (O 2 ) flux dynamics, organic carbon cycling, and ecosystem health in marine and freshwater environments. Because it is a noninvasive technique, has a high temporal resolution (∼15 min), and integrates over a large area of the seafloor (typically 10–100 m 2 ), it has provided new insights on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems under naturally varying in situ conditions and has given us more accurate assessments of their metabolism. In this review, we summarize biogeochemical, ecological, and biological insightsgained from AEC studies of marine ecosystems. A general finding for all substrates is that benthic O 2 exchange is far more dynamic than earlier recognized, and thus accurate mean values can only be obtained from measurements that integrate over all timescales that affect the local O 2 exchange. Finally, we highlight new developments of the technique, including measurements of air–water gas exchange and long-term deployments. 
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  6. Integration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) units into semi-fluorinated polymers affords high thermal stability and excellent processability for potential applications in optoelectronic, gas-separation, and advanced composites. Base-promoted step-growth polycondensation of commercial bisphenols with new triphenylene containing bis-trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) monomers affords semi-fluorinated arylene vinylene ether (FAVE) polymers in good yields. The solution-processable polymers form tough transparent films and produce substitution dependent blue-light emission in solution with emission quantum yields ranging from 7.2–12% (in dichloromethane). Although predominantly amorphous with high glass transition temperatures ( T g ) ranging from 176–243 °C, powder X-ray diffraction studies show typical molecular diameter and pi-stacking reflections for triphenylene polymers. The polymers exhibited excellent thermal stability, solution photostability, and remarkable thermal oxidative photostability after heating at 250 °C for 24 h in air. Further, a model post-polymerization Scholl coupling afforded a novel semi-fluorinated hexabenzocoronene polymer with new optical properties. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) computations were also performed using SMD (dichloromethane)- ω B97XD/BS1 (BS1 = 6-31G(d′) for C, H, O and F). This work demonstrated the synthesis and characterization of processable, blue-light emitting, thermally stable triphenylene enchained semi-fluorinated aryl ether polymers. 
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  7. We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array S - (2–4 GHz), C - (4–8 GHz), and X -band (8–12 GHz) continuum observations toward seven radio-loud quasars at z  > 5. This sample has previously been found to exhibit spectral peaks at observed-frame frequencies above ∼1 GHz. We also present upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (uGMRT) band-2 (200 MHz), band-3 (400 MHz), and band-4 (650 MHz) radio continuum observations toward eight radio-loud quasars at z  > 5, selected from our previous GMRT survey, in order to sample their low-frequency synchrotron emission. Combined with archival radio continuum observations, all ten targets show evidence for spectral turnover. The turnover frequencies are ∼1–50 GHz in the rest frame, making these targets gigahertz-peaked-spectrum or high-frequency-peaker candidates. For the nine well-constrained targets with observations on both sides of the spectral turnover, we fit the entire radio spectrum with absorption models associated with synchrotron self-absorption and free-free absorption (FFA). Our results show that FFA in an external inhomogeneous medium can accurately describe the observed spectra for all nine targets, which may indicate an FFA origin for the radio spectral turnover in our sample. As for the complex spectrum of J114657.79+403708.6 at z  = 5.00 with two spectral peaks, it may be caused by multiple components (i.e., core-jet) and FFA by the high-density medium in the nuclear region. However, we cannot rule out the spectral turnover origin of variability. Based on our radio spectral modeling, we calculate the radio loudness R 2500 Å for our sample, which ranges from 12 −1 +1 to 674 −51 +61 . 
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  8. null (Ed.)
    In recent years, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has been hugely beneficial for cognitive neuroscience by making new experiment designs possible and by increasing the inferential power of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and other neuroimaging methodologies. In a similar time frame, “deep learning” (a term for the use of artificial neural networks with convolutional, recurrent, or similarly sophisticated architectures) has produced a parallel revolution in the field of machine learning and has been employed across a wide variety of applications. Traditional MVPA also uses a form of machine learning, but most commonly with much simpler techniques based on linear calculations; a number of studies have applied deep learning techniques to neuroimaging data, but we believe that those have barely scratched the surface of the potential deep learning holds for the field. In this paper, we provide a brief introduction to deep learning for those new to the technique, explore the logistical pros and cons of using deep learning to analyze neuroimaging data – which we term “deep MVPA,” or dMVPA – and introduce a new software toolbox (the “Deep Learning In Neuroimaging: Exploration, Analysis, Tools, and Education” package, DeLINEATE for short) intended to facilitate dMVPA for neuroscientists (and indeed, scientists more broadly) everywhere. 
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  9. ABSTRACT Measuring interstellar magnetic fields is extremely important for understanding their role in different evolutionary stages of interstellar clouds and star formation. However, detecting the weak field is observationally challenging. We present measurements of the Zeeman effect in the 1665 and 1667 MHz (18 cm) lines of the hydroxyl radical (OH) lines towards the dense photodissociation region (PDR) associated with the compact H ii region DR 21 (Main). From the OH 18 cm absorption, observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we find that the line-of-sight magnetic field in this region is ∼0.13 mG. The same transitions in maser emission towards the neighbouring DR 21(OH) and W 75S-FR1 regions also exhibit the Zeeman splitting. Along with the OH data, we use [C ii] 158 μm line and hydrogen radio recombination line data to constrain the physical conditions and the kinematics of the region. We find the OH column density to be ∼3.6 × 1016(Tex/25 K) cm−2, and that the 1665 and 1667 MHz absorption lines are originating from the gas where OH and C+ are co-existing in the PDR. Under reasonable assumptions, we find the measured magnetic field strength for the PDR to be lower than the value expected from the commonly discussed density–magnetic field relation while the field strength values estimated from the maser emission are roughly consistent with the same. Finally, we compare the magnetic field energy density with the overall energetics of DR 21’s PDR and find that, in its current evolutionary stage, the magnetic field is not dynamically important. 
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