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  1. Integration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) units into semi-fluorinated polymers affords high thermal stability and excellent processability for potential applications in optoelectronic, gas-separation, and advanced composites. Base-promoted step-growth polycondensation of commercial bisphenols with new triphenylene containing bis-trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) monomers affords semi-fluorinated arylene vinylene ether (FAVE) polymers in good yields. The solution-processable polymers form tough transparent films and produce substitution dependent blue-light emission in solution with emission quantum yields ranging from 7.2–12% (in dichloromethane). Although predominantly amorphous with high glass transition temperatures ( T g ) ranging from 176–243 °C, powder X-ray diffraction studies show typical molecular diameter and pi-stackingmore »reflections for triphenylene polymers. The polymers exhibited excellent thermal stability, solution photostability, and remarkable thermal oxidative photostability after heating at 250 °C for 24 h in air. Further, a model post-polymerization Scholl coupling afforded a novel semi-fluorinated hexabenzocoronene polymer with new optical properties. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) computations were also performed using SMD (dichloromethane)- ω B97XD/BS1 (BS1 = 6-31G(d′) for C, H, O and F). This work demonstrated the synthesis and characterization of processable, blue-light emitting, thermally stable triphenylene enchained semi-fluorinated aryl ether polymers.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 31, 2023
  2. Aquatic eddy covariance (AEC) is increasingly being used to study benthic oxygen (O 2 ) flux dynamics, organic carbon cycling, and ecosystem health in marine and freshwater environments. Because it is a noninvasive technique, has a high temporal resolution (∼15 min), and integrates over a large area of the seafloor (typically 10–100 m 2 ), it has provided new insights on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems under naturally varying in situ conditions and has given us more accurate assessments of their metabolism. In this review, we summarize biogeochemical, ecological, and biological insightsgained from AEC studies of marine ecosystems. A generalmore »finding for all substrates is that benthic O 2 exchange is far more dynamic than earlier recognized, and thus accurate mean values can only be obtained from measurements that integrate over all timescales that affect the local O 2 exchange. Finally, we highlight new developments of the technique, including measurements of air–water gas exchange and long-term deployments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 3, 2023
  3. We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array S - (2–4 GHz), C - (4–8 GHz), and X -band (8–12 GHz) continuum observations toward seven radio-loud quasars at z  > 5. This sample has previously been found to exhibit spectral peaks at observed-frame frequencies above ∼1 GHz. We also present upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (uGMRT) band-2 (200 MHz), band-3 (400 MHz), and band-4 (650 MHz) radio continuum observations toward eight radio-loud quasars at z  > 5, selected from our previous GMRT survey, in order to sample their low-frequency synchrotron emission. Combined with archival radio continuum observations, all ten targets show evidencemore »for spectral turnover. The turnover frequencies are ∼1–50 GHz in the rest frame, making these targets gigahertz-peaked-spectrum or high-frequency-peaker candidates. For the nine well-constrained targets with observations on both sides of the spectral turnover, we fit the entire radio spectrum with absorption models associated with synchrotron self-absorption and free-free absorption (FFA). Our results show that FFA in an external inhomogeneous medium can accurately describe the observed spectra for all nine targets, which may indicate an FFA origin for the radio spectral turnover in our sample. As for the complex spectrum of J114657.79+403708.6 at z  = 5.00 with two spectral peaks, it may be caused by multiple components (i.e., core-jet) and FFA by the high-density medium in the nuclear region. However, we cannot rule out the spectral turnover origin of variability. Based on our radio spectral modeling, we calculate the radio loudness R 2500 Å for our sample, which ranges from 12 −1 +1 to 674 −51 +61 .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  4. In recent years, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has been hugely beneficial for cognitive neuroscience by making new experiment designs possible and by increasing the inferential power of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and other neuroimaging methodologies. In a similar time frame, “deep learning” (a term for the use of artificial neural networks with convolutional, recurrent, or similarly sophisticated architectures) has produced a parallel revolution in the field of machine learning and has been employed across a wide variety of applications. Traditional MVPA also uses a form of machine learning, but most commonly with much simpler techniques based onmore »linear calculations; a number of studies have applied deep learning techniques to neuroimaging data, but we believe that those have barely scratched the surface of the potential deep learning holds for the field. In this paper, we provide a brief introduction to deep learning for those new to the technique, explore the logistical pros and cons of using deep learning to analyze neuroimaging data – which we term “deep MVPA,” or dMVPA – and introduce a new software toolbox (the “Deep Learning In Neuroimaging: Exploration, Analysis, Tools, and Education” package, DeLINEATE for short) intended to facilitate dMVPA for neuroscientists (and indeed, scientists more broadly) everywhere.« less
  5. ABSTRACT Measuring interstellar magnetic fields is extremely important for understanding their role in different evolutionary stages of interstellar clouds and star formation. However, detecting the weak field is observationally challenging. We present measurements of the Zeeman effect in the 1665 and 1667 MHz (18 cm) lines of the hydroxyl radical (OH) lines towards the dense photodissociation region (PDR) associated with the compact H ii region DR 21 (Main). From the OH 18 cm absorption, observed with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we find that the line-of-sight magnetic field in this region is ∼0.13 mG. The same transitions in maser emission towards the neighbouring DR 21(OH) andmore »W 75S-FR1 regions also exhibit the Zeeman splitting. Along with the OH data, we use [C ii] 158 μm line and hydrogen radio recombination line data to constrain the physical conditions and the kinematics of the region. We find the OH column density to be ∼3.6 × 1016(Tex/25 K) cm−2, and that the 1665 and 1667 MHz absorption lines are originating from the gas where OH and C+ are co-existing in the PDR. Under reasonable assumptions, we find the measured magnetic field strength for the PDR to be lower than the value expected from the commonly discussed density–magnetic field relation while the field strength values estimated from the maser emission are roughly consistent with the same. Finally, we compare the magnetic field energy density with the overall energetics of DR 21’s PDR and find that, in its current evolutionary stage, the magnetic field is not dynamically important.« less
  6. We present Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 323 MHz radio continuum observations toward 13 radio-loud quasars at z  >  5, sampling the low-frequency synchrotron emission from these objects. Among the 12 targets successfully observed, we detected 10 above 4 σ significance, while 2 remain undetected. All of the detected sources appear as point sources. Combined with previous radio continuum detections from the literature, 9 quasars have power-law spectral energy distributions throughout the radio range; for some the flux density drops with increasing frequency while it increases for others. Two of these sources appear to have spectral turnover. For the power-law-likemore »sources, the power-law indices have a positive range between 0.18 and 0.67 and a negative values between −0.90 and −0.27. For the turnover sources, the radio peaks around ∼1 and ∼10 GHz in the rest frame, the optically thin indices are −0.58 and −0.90, and the optically thick indices are 0.50 and 1.20. A magnetic field and spectral age analysis of SDSS J114657.59+403708.6 at z  = 5.01 may indicate that the turnover is not caused by synchrotron self-absorption, but rather by free-free absorption by the high-density medium in the nuclear region. Alternatively, the apparent turnover may be an artifact of source variability. Finally, we calculated the radio loudness R 2500 Å for our sample, which spans a very wide range from 12 −13 +13 to 4982 −254 +279 .« less