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  1. Abstract

    Although many substorm‐related observations have been made, we still have limited insight into propagation of the plasma and field perturbations in Pi2 frequencies (∼7–25 mHz) in association with substorm aurora, particularly from the auroral source region in the inner magnetosphere to the ground. In this study, we present conjugate observations of a substorm brightening aurora using an all‐sky camera and an inner‐magnetospheric satellite Arase atL ∼ 5. A camera at Gakona (62.39°N, 214.78°E), Alaska, observed a substorm auroral brightening on 28 December 2018, and the footprint of the satellite was located just equatorward of the aurora. Around the timing of the auroral brightening, the satellite observed a series of quasi‐periodic variations in the electric and magnetic fields and in the energy flux of electrons and ions. We demonstrate that the diamagnetic variations of thermal pressure and medium‐energy ion energy flux in the inner magnetosphere show approximately one‐to‐one correspondence with the oscillations in luminosity of the substorm brightening aurora and high‐latitudinal Pi2 pulsations on the ground. We also found their anti‐correlation with low‐energy electrons. Cavity‐type Pi2 pulsations were observed at mid‐ and low‐latitudinal stations. Based on these observations, we suggest that a wave phenomenon in the substorm auroral source region, like ballooning type instability, play an important role in the development of substorm and related auroral brightening and high‐latitude Pi2, and that the variation of the auroral luminosity was directly driven by keV electrons which were modulated by Alfven waves in the inner magnetosphere.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    A specialized ground‐based system has been developed for simultaneous observations of pulsating aurora (PsA) and related magnetospheric phenomena with the Arase satellite. The instrument suite is composed of (a) six 100 Hz sampling high‐speed all‐sky imagers (ASIs), (b) two 10 Hz sampling monochromatic ASIs observing 427.8 and 844.6 nm auroral emissions, (c) a 20 Hz sampling fluxgate magnetometer. The 100 Hz ASIs were deployed in four stations in Scandinavia and two stations in Alaska, which have been used for capturing the main pulsations and quasi 3 Hz internal modulations of PsA at the same time. The 10 Hz sampling monochromatic ASIs have been operative in Tromsø, Norway with the 20 Hz sampling magnetometer. Combination of these multiple instruments with the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) radar enables us to detect the low‐altitude ionization due to energetic electron precipitation during PsA and further to reveal the ionospheric electrodynamics behind PsA. Since the launch of the Arase satellite, the data from these instruments have been examined in comparison with the wave and particle data from the satellite in the magnetosphere. In the future, the system can be utilized not only for studies of PsA but also for other classes of aurora in close collaboration with the planned EISCAT_3D project.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  3. Abstract Kondo lattice materials, where localized magnetic moments couple to itinerant electrons, provide a very rich backdrop for strong electron correlations. They are known to realize many exotic phenomena, with a dramatic example being recent observations of quantum oscillations and metallic thermal conduction in insulators, implying the emergence of enigmatic charge-neutral fermions. Here, we show that thermal conductivity and specific heat measurements in insulating YbIr 3 Si 7 reveal emergent neutral excitations, whose properties are sensitively changed by a field-driven transition between two antiferromagnetic phases. In the low-field phase, a significant violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law demonstrates that YbIr 3 Si 7 is a charge insulator but a thermal metal. In the high-field phase, thermal conductivity exhibits a sharp drop below 300 mK, indicating a transition from a thermal metal into an insulator/semimetal driven by the magnetic transition. These results suggest that spin degrees of freedom directly couple to the neutral fermions, whose emergent Fermi surface undergoes a field-driven instability at low temperatures. 
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  6. In metals, orbital motions of conduction electrons on the Fermi surface are quantized in magnetic fields, which is manifested by quantum oscillations in electrical resistivity. This Landau quantization is generally absent in insulators. Here, we report a notable exception in an insulator—ytterbium dodecaboride (YbB12). The resistivity of YbB12, which is of a much larger magnitude than the resistivity in metals, exhibits distinct quantum oscillations. These unconventional oscillations arise from the insulating bulk, even though the temperature dependence of the oscillation amplitude follows the conventional Fermi liquid theory of metals with a large effective mass. Quantum oscillations in the magnetic torque are also observed, albeit with a lighter effective mass.

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