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  1. Abstract

    How convective boundary‐layer (CBL) processes modify fluxes of sensible (SH) and latent (LH) heat and CO2(Fc) in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) remains a recalcitrant problem. Here, large eddy simulations for the CBL show that whileSHin the ASL decreases linearly with height regardless of soil moisture conditions,LHandFcdecrease linearly with height over wet soils but increase with height over dry soils. This varying flux divergence/convergence is regulated by changes in asymmetric flux transport between top‐down and bottom‐up processes. Such flux divergence and convergence indicate that turbulent fluxes measured in the ASL underestimate and overestimate the “true” surface interfacial fluxes, respectively. While the non‐closure of the surface energy balance persists across all soil moisture states, it improves over drier soils due to overestimatedLH. The non‐closure does not imply thatFcis always underestimated;Fccan be overestimated over dry soils despite the non‐closure issue.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 16, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Agrivoltaics (AV), conceived in the early 1980s, promise to ameliorate competition between solar energy generation and crop production for arable land. The premise behind AV is that excess light not used in photosynthesis can be used for energy production. There are opportunities for maximizing photosynthesis by targeting particular wavelengths (e.g., red) to be transmitted through semi‐transparent photovoltaic (PV) cells depending on crop type and environmental conditions. Camporese and Abou Najm (2022,https://doi.org/10.1029/2022EF002900) developed a numerical model that accommodates the various wavelengths of the incoming light spectrum to predict photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration. This commentary seeks to place those and other recent findings about the modifications to the plant micro‐environment by PV cells in the context of maximum attainable aboveground biomass.

     
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  4. The intermittency of fog occurrence (the switching between fog and no-fog) is a key stochastic feature that plays a role in its duration and the amount of moisture available. Here, fog intermittency is studied by using the visibility time series collected during the month of July 2022 on Sable Island, Canada. In addition to the visibility, time series of air relative humidity and turbulent kinetic energy, putative variables akin to the formation and breakup conditions of fog, respectively, are also analyzed in the same framework to establish links between fog intermittency and the underlying atmospheric variables. Intermittency in the time series is quantified with their binary telegraph approximations to isolate clustering behavior from amplitude variations. It is shown that relative humidity and turbulent kinetic energy bound many stochastic features of visibility, including its spectral exponent, clustering exponent, and the growth of its block entropy slope. Although not diagnostic, the visibility time series displays features consistent with Pomeau–Manneville Type-III intermittency in its quiescent phase duration PDF scaling (−3/2), power spectrum scaling (−1/2), and signal amplitude PDF scaling (−2). The binary fog time series exhibits properties of self-organized criticality in the relation between its power spectrum scaling and quiescent phase duration distribution. 
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  5. Abstract

    A persistent spatial organization of eddies is identified in the lowest portion of the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. The analysis uses flow realizations from published large-eddy simulations (Sullivan et al. in J Atmos Sci 73(4):1815–1840, 2016) ranging in stability from near-neutral to almost z-less stratification. The coherent turbulent structure is well approximated as a series of uniform momentum zones (UMZs) and uniform temperature zones (UTZs) separated by thin layers of intense gradients that are significantly greater than the mean. This pattern yields stairstep-like instantaneous flow profiles whose shape is distinct from the mean profiles that emerge from long-term averaging. However, the scaling of the stairstep organization is closely related to the resulting mean profiles. The differences in velocity and temperature across the thin gradient layers remain proportional to the surface momentum and heat flux conditions regardless of stratification. The vertical thickness of UMZs and UTZs is proportional to height above the surface for near-neutral and weak stratification, but becomes thinner and less dependent on height as the stability increases. Deviations from the logarithmic mean profiles for velocity and temperature observed under neutral conditions are therefore predominately due to the reduction in eddy size with increasing stratification, which is empirically captured by existing Monin–Obukhov similarity relations for momentum and heat. The zone properties are additionally used to explain trends in the turbulent Prandtl number, thus providing a connection between the eddy organization, mean profiles, and turbulent diffusivity in stably stratified conditions.

     
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  6. The inertial subrange of turbulent scales is commonly reflected by a power law signature in ensemble statistics such as the energy spectrum and structure functions – both in theory and from observations. Despite promising findings on the topic of fractal geometries in turbulence, there is no accepted image for the physical flow features corresponding to this statistical signature in the inertial subrange. The present study uses boundary layer turbulence measurements to evaluate the self-similar geometric properties of velocity isosurfaces and investigate their influence on statistics for the velocity signal. The fractal dimension of streamwise velocity isosurfaces, indicating statistical self-similarity in the size of ‘wrinkles’ along each isosurface, is shown to be constant only within the inertial subrange of scales. For the transition between the inertial subrange and production range, it is inferred that the largest wrinkles become increasingly confined by the overall size of large-scale coherent velocity regions such as uniform momentum zones. The self-similarity of isosurfaces yields power-law trends in subsequent one-dimensional statistics. For instance, the theoretical 2/3 power-law exponent for the structure function can be recovered by considering the collective behaviour of numerous isosurface level sets. The results suggest that the physical presence of inertial subrange eddies is manifested in the self-similar wrinkles of isosurfaces. 
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  7. Modification to the law of the wall represented by a dimensionless correction function ϕRSL(z/h) is derived using atmospheric turbulence measurements collected at two sites in the Amazon in near-neutral stratification, where z is the distance from the forest floor and h is the mean canopy height. The sites are the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory for z/h∈[1,2.3] and the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) site for z/h∈[1,1.4]. A link between the vertical velocity spectrum Eww(k) (k is the longitudinal wavenumber) and ϕRSL is then established using a co-spectral budget (CSB) model interpreted by the moving-equilibrium hypothesis. The key finding is that ϕRSL is determined by the ratio of two turbulent viscosities and is given as νt,BL/νt,RSL, where νt,RSL=(1/A)∫0∞τ(k)Eww(k)dk, νt,BL=kv(z−d)u*, τ(k) is a scale-dependent decorrelation time scale between velocity components, A=CR/(1−CI)=4.5 is predicted from the Rotta constant CR=1.8, and the isotropization of production constant CI=3/5 given by rapid distortion theory, kv is the von Kármán constant, u* is the friction velocity at the canopy top, and d is the zero-plane displacement. Because the transfer of energy across scales is conserved in Eww(k) and is determined by the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (ε), the CSB model also predicts that ϕRSL scales with LBL/Ld, where LBL is the length scale of attached eddies to z=d, and Ld=u*3/ε is a macro-scale dissipation length.

     
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  8. Abstract. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration is expectedto increase leaf CO2 assimilation rates, thus promoting plant growthand increasing leaf area. It also decreases stomatal conductance, allowingwater savings, which have been hypothesized to drive large-scale greening,in particular in arid and semiarid climates. However, the increase in leafarea could reduce the benefits of elevated CO2 concentration through soilwater depletion. The net effect of elevated CO2 on leaf- andcanopy-level gas exchange remains uncertain. To address this question, wecompare the outcomes of a heuristic model based on the Partitioning ofEquilibrium Transpiration and Assimilation (PETA) hypothesis and three modelvariants based on stomatal optimization theory. Predicted relative changes in leaf-and canopy-level gas exchange rates are used as a metric of plant responsesto changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Both model approaches predictreductions in leaf-level transpiration rate due to decreased stomatalconductance under elevated CO2, but negligible (PETA) or no(optimization) changes in canopy-level transpiration due to the compensatoryeffect of increased leaf area. Leaf- and canopy-level CO2 assimilationis predicted to increase, with an amplification of the CO2fertilization effect at the canopy level due to the enhanced leaf area. Theexpected increase in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) under warmer conditions isgenerally predicted to decrease the sensitivity of gas exchange toatmospheric CO2 concentration in both models. The consistentpredictions by different models that canopy-level transpiration varieslittle under elevated CO2 due to combined stomatal conductancereduction and leaf area increase highlight the coordination ofphysiological and morphological characteristics in vegetation to maximizeresource use (here water) under altered climatic conditions. 
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  9. null (Ed.)