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  1. Chinn, C. ; Tan, E. ; Chan, C. ; Kali, Y. (Ed.)
    Immersive AR technologies can support students’ learning processes and deep engagement with outdoor science pursuits, yet few studies explore these technologies with out-of-school learners. We analyze how immersive AR features built into an outdoor-based mobile app shaped nine families’ learning experiences as they explored pollinator habitats. Preliminary findings revealed that immersive AR scanning tools built into the Pollinator Explorers app guided families’ observational practices of real-world objects through virtual overlays representing pollinator habitats.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We report on NICER X-ray monitoring of the magnetar SGR 1830−0645 covering 223 days following its 2020 October outburst, as well as Chandra and radio observations. We present the most accurate spin ephemerides of the source so far: ν = 0.096008680(2) Hz, ν ̇ = − 6.2 ( 1 ) × 10 − 14 Hz s −1 , and significant second and third frequency derivative terms indicative of nonnegligible timing noise. The phase-averaged 0.8–7 keV spectrum is well fit with a double-blackbody (BB) model throughout the campaign. The BB temperatures remain constant at 0.46 and 1.2 keV. The areas and flux of each component decreased by a factor of 6, initially through a steep decay trend lasting about 46 days, followed by a shallow long-term one. The pulse shape in the same energy range is initially complex, exhibiting three distinct peaks, yet with clear continuous evolution throughout the outburst toward a simpler, single-pulse shape. The rms pulsed fraction is high and increases from about 40% to 50%. We find no dependence of pulse shape or fraction on energy. These results suggest that multiple hot spots, possibly possessing temperature gradients, emerged at outburst onset and shrank as the outburst decayed.more »We detect 84 faint bursts with NICER, having a strong preference for occurring close to the surface emission pulse maximum—the first time this phenomenon is detected in such a large burst sample. This likely implies a very low altitude for the burst emission region and a triggering mechanism connected to the surface active zone. Finally, our radio observations at several epochs and multiple frequencies reveal no evidence of pulsed or burst-like radio emission.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    We have used X-ray data from the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) to search for long-timescale temporal correlations (“red noise”) in the pulse times of arrival (TOAs) from the millisecond pulsars PSR J1824−2452A and PSR B1937+21. These data more closely track intrinsic noise because X-rays are unaffected by the radio-frequency-dependent propagation effects of the interstellar medium. Our search yields strong evidence (natural log Bayes factor of 9.634 ± 0.016) for red noise in PSR J1824−2452A, but the search is inconclusive for PSR B1937+21. In the interest of future X-ray missions, we devise and implement a method to simulate longer and higher-precision X-ray data sets to determine the timing baseline necessary to detect red noise. We find that the red noise in PSR B1937+21 can be reliably detected in a 5 yr mission with a TOA error of 2μs and an observing cadence of 20 observations per month compared to the 5μs TOA error and 11 observations per month that NICER currently achieves in PSR B1937+21. We investigate detecting red noise in PSR B1937+21 with other combinations of observing cadences and TOA errors. We also find that time-correlated red noise commensurate with an injected stochastic gravitational-wave background having anmore »amplitude ofAGWB= 2 × 10−15and spectral index of timing residuals ofγGWB= 13/3 can be detected in a pulsar with similar TOA precision to PSR B1937+21. This is with no additional red noise in a 10 yr mission that observes the pulsar 15 times per month and has an average TOA error of 1μs.

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  4. A series of complexes with low-energy Fe II to Ti IV metal-to-metal charge-transfer (MMCT) transitions, Cp 2 Ti(C 2 Fc) 2 , Cp* 2 Ti(C 2 Fc) 2 , and MeOOC Cp 2 Ti(C 2 Fc) 2 , was investigated using solvatochromism and resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) augmented with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations in order to interrogate the nature of the CT transitions. Computational models were benchmarked against the experimental UV-Vis spectra and B3LYP/6-31G(d) was found to most faithfully represent the spectra. The energy of the MMCT transition was measured in 15 different solvents and a multivariate fit to the Catalán solvent parameters – solvent polarizability (SP), solvent dipolarity (SdP), solvent basicity (SB), and solvent acidity (SA) – was performed. The effect of SP indicates a greater degree of electron delocalization in the excited state (ES) than the ground state (GS). The small negative solvatochromism with respect to SdP indicates a smaller dipole moment in the ES than the GS. The effect of SB is consistent with charge-transfer to Ti. Upon excitation into the MMCT absorption band, the RRS data show enhancement of the alkyne stretching modes and of the out-of-plane bending modes of the cyclopentadienyl ring connectedmore »to Fe and the alkyne bridge. This is consistent with changes in the oxidation states of Ti and Fe, respectively. The higher-energy transitions (350–450 nm) show enhancement of vibrational modes consistent with ethnylcyclopentadienyl to Ti ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT). The RRS data is consistent with the TDDFT predicted character of these transitions. TDDFT suggests that the lowest-energy transition in Cp 2 Ti(C 2 Fc) 2 CuI, where CuI is coordinated between the alkynes, retains its Fe II to Ti IV MMCT character, in agreement with the RRS data, but that the lowest-energy transitions have significant CuI to Ti character. For Cp 2 Ti(C 2 Fc) 2 CuI, excitation into the low-energy MMCT absorption band results in selective enhancement of the symmetric alkynyl stretching mode.« less
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023