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    Magnetic fields can drastically change predictions of evolutionary models of massive stars via mass-loss quenching, magnetic braking, and efficient angular momentum transport, which we aim to quantify in this work. We use the mesa software instrument to compute an extensive main-sequence grid of stellar structure and evolution models, as well as isochrones, accounting for the effects attributed to a surface fossil magnetic field. The grid is densely populated in initial mass (3–60 M⊙), surface equatorial magnetic field strength (0–50 kG), and metallicity (representative of the Solar neighbourhood and the Magellanic Clouds). We use two magnetic braking and two chemical mixing schemes and compare the model predictions for slowly rotating, nitrogen-enriched (‘Group 2’) stars with observations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We quantify a range of initial field strengths that allow for producing Group 2 stars and find that typical values (up to a few kG) lead to solutions. Between the subgrids, we find notable departures in surface abundances and evolutionary paths. In our magnetic models, chemical mixing is always less efficient compared to non-magnetic models due to the rapid spin-down. We identify that quasi-chemically homogeneous main sequence evolution by efficient mixing could be prevented by fossil magnetic fields. We recommend comparing this gridmore »of evolutionary models with spectropolarimetric and spectroscopic observations with the goals of (i) revisiting the derived stellar parameters of known magnetic stars, and (ii) observationally constraining the uncertain magnetic braking and chemical mixing schemes.

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  2. Context. Magnetic fields influence the formation and evolution of stars and impact the observed stellar properties. magnetic A-type stars (Ap stars) are a prime example of this. Access to precise and accurate determinations of their stellar fundamental properties, such as masses and ages, is crucial to understand the origin and evolution of fossil magnetic fields. Aims. We propose using the radii and luminosities determined from interferometric measurements, in addition to seismic constraints when available, to infer fundamental properties of 14 Ap stars préviously characterised. Methods. We used a grid-based modelling approach, employing stellar models computed with the CESTAM stellar evolution code, and the parameter search performed with the AIMS optimisation method. The stellar model grid was built using a wide range of initial helium abundances and metallicities in order to avoid any bias originating from the initial chemical composition. The large frequency separations (Δ ν ) of HR 1217 (HD 24712) and α Cir (HD 128898), two rapidly oscillating Ap stars of the sample, were used as seismic constraints. Results. We inferred the fundamental properties of the 14 stars in the sample. The overall results are consistent within 1 σ with previous studies, however, the stellar masses inferred in thismore »study are higher. This trend likely originates from the broader range of chemical compositions considered in this work. We show that the use of Δ ν in the modelling significantly improves our inferences, allowing us to set reasonable constraints on the initial metallicity which is, otherwise, unconstrained. This gives an indication of the efficiency of atomic diffusion in the atmospheres of roAp stars and opens the possibility of characterising the transport of chemical elements in their interiors.« less
  3. ABSTRACT The time evolution of angular momentum and surface rotation of massive stars are strongly influenced by fossil magnetic fields via magnetic braking. We present a new module containing a simple, comprehensive implementation of such a field at the surface of a massive star within the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (mesa) software instrument. We test two limiting scenarios for magnetic braking: distributing the angular momentum loss throughout the star in the first case, and restricting the angular momentum loss to a surface reservoir in the second case. We perform a systematic investigation of the rotational evolution using a grid of OB star models with surface magnetic fields (M⋆ = 5–60 M⊙, Ω/Ωcrit = 0.2–1.0, Bp = 1–20 kG). We then employ a representative grid of B-type star models (M⋆ = 5, 10, 15 M⊙, Ω/Ωcrit = 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, Bp = 1, 3, 10, 30 kG) to compare to the results of a recent self-consistent analysis of the sample of known magnetic B-type stars. We infer that magnetic massive stars arrive at the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) with a range of rotation rates, rather than with one common value. In particular, some stars are required to have close-to-critical rotation at the ZAMS. However, magnetic braking yields surface rotationmore »rates converging to a common low value, making it difficult to infer the initial rotation rates of evolved, slowly rotating stars.« less

    Magnetic confinement of stellar winds leads to the formation of magnetospheres, which can be sculpted into centrifugal magnetospheres (CMs) by rotational support of the corotating plasma. The conditions required for the CMs of magnetic early B-type stars to yield detectable emission in H α – the principal diagnostic of these structures – are poorly constrained. A key reason is that no detailed study of the magnetic and rotational evolution of this population has yet been performed. Using newly determined rotational periods, modern magnetic measurements, and atmospheric parameters determined via spectroscopic modelling, we have derived fundamental parameters, dipolar oblique rotator models, and magnetospheric parameters for 56 early B-type stars. Comparison to magnetic A- and O-type stars shows that the range of surface magnetic field strength is essentially constant with stellar mass, but that the unsigned surface magnetic flux increases with mass. Both the surface magnetic dipole strength and the total magnetic flux decrease with stellar age, with the rate of flux decay apparently increasing with stellar mass. We find tentative evidence that multipolar magnetic fields may decay more rapidly than dipoles. Rotational periods increase with stellar age, as expected for a magnetic braking scenario. Without exception, all stars with H α emissionmore »originating in a CM are (1) rapid rotators, (2) strongly magnetic, and (3) young, with the latter property consistent with the observation that magnetic fields and rotation both decrease over time.

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