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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  4. Abstract A family of higher-order rational lumps on non-zero constant background of Davey–Stewartson (DS) II equation are investigated. These solutions have multiple peaks whose heights and trajectories are approximately given by asymptotical analysis. It is found that the heights are time-dependent and for large time they approach the same constant height value of the first-order fundamental lump. The resulting trajectories are considered and it is found that the scattering angle can assume arbitrary values in the interval of ( π 2 , π ) which is markedly distinct from the necessary orthogonal scattering for the higher-order lumps on zero background. Additionally, it is illustrated that the higher-order lumps containing multi-peaked n -lumps can be regarded as a nonlinear superposition of n first-order ones as | t | → ∞ . 
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  5. Abstract Combinatorial optimization problems are difficult to solve with conventional algorithms. Here we explore networks of nonlinear electronic oscillators evolving dynamically towards the solution to such problems. We show that when driven into subharmonic response, such oscillator networks can minimize the Ising Hamiltonian on non-trivial antiferromagnetically-coupled 3-regular graphs. In this context, the spin-up and spin-down states of the Ising machine are represented by the oscillators’ response at the even or odd driving cycles. Our experimental setting of driven nonlinear oscillators coupled via a programmable switch matrix leads to a unique energy minimizer when one exists, and probes frustration where appropriate. Theoretical modeling of the electronic oscillators and their couplings allows us to accurately reproduce the qualitative features of the experimental results and extends the results to larger graphs. This suggests the promise of this setup as a prototypical one for exploring the capabilities of such an unconventional computing platform. 
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  6. Abstract We consider the existence and spectral stability of multi-breather structures in the discrete Klein–Gordon equation, both for soft and hard symmetric potentials. To obtain analytical results, we project the system onto a finite-dimensional Hilbert space consisting of the first M Fourier modes, for arbitrary M . On this approximate system, we then take a spatial dynamics approach and use Lin’s method to construct multi-breathers from a sequence of well-separated copies of the primary, single-site breather. We then locate the eigenmodes in the Floquet spectrum associated with the interaction between the individual breathers of such multi-breather states by reducing the spectral problem to a matrix equation. Expressions for these eigenmodes for the approximate, finite-dimensional system are obtained in terms of the primary breather and its kernel eigenfunctions, and these are found to be in very good agreement with the numerical Floquet spectrum results. This is supplemented with results from numerical timestepping experiments, which are interpreted using the spectral computations. 
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  7. It is widely accepted that the number of reported cases during the first stages of the COVID-19 pandemic severely underestimates the number of actual cases. We leverage delay embedding theorems of Whitney and Takens and use Gaussian process regression to estimate the number of cases during the first 2020 wave based on the second wave of the epidemic in several European countries, South Korea and Brazil. We assume that the second wave was more accurately monitored, even though we acknowledge that behavioural changes occurred during the pandemic and region- (or country-) specific monitoring protocols evolved. We then construct a manifold diffeomorphic to that of the implied original dynamical system, using fatalities or hospitalizations only. Finally, we restrict the diffeomorphism to the reported cases coordinate of the dynamical system. Our main finding is that in the European countries studied, the actual cases are under-reported by as much as 50%. On the other hand, in South Korea—which had a proactive mitigation approach—a far smaller discrepancy between the actual and reported cases is predicted, with an approximately 18% predicted underestimation. We believe that our backcasting framework is applicable to other epidemic outbreaks where (due to limited or poor quality data) there is uncertainty around the actual cases. 
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