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Creators/Authors contains: "Khan, Niazul I."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  2. Aptamer-immobilized graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have become a well-known detection platform in the field of biosensing with various biomarkers such as proteins, bacteria, virus, as well as chemicals. A conventional aptamer immobilization technique on graphene involves a two-step crosslinking process. In the first step, a pyrene derivative is anchored onto the surface of graphene and, in the second step, an amine-terminated aptamer is crosslinked to the pyrene backbone with EDC/NHS (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry. However, this process often requires the use of organic solvents such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which are typically polar aprotic solvents andmore »hence dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds. The use of such solvents can be especially problematic in the fabrication of lab-on-a-chip or point-of-care diagnostic platforms as they can attack vulnerable materials such as polymers, passivation layers and microfluidic tubing leading to device damage and fluid leakage. To remedy such challenges, in this work, we demonstrate the use of pyrene-tagged DNA aptamers (PTDA) for performing a one-step aptamer immobilization technique to implement a GFET-based biosensor for the detection of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein biomarker. In this approach, the aptamer terminal is pre-tagged with a pyrene group which becomes soluble in aqueous solution. This obviates the need for using organic solvents, thereby enhancing the device integrity. In addition, an external electric field is applied during the functionalization step to increase the efficiency of aptamer immobilization and hence improved coverage and density. The results from this work could potentially open up new avenues for the use of GFET-based BioMEMS platforms by broadening the choice of materials used for device fabrication and integration.« less
  3. Lab-on-a-chip technology offers an ideal platform for low-cost, reliable, and easy-to-use diagnostics of key biomarkers needed for early screening of diseases and other health concerns. In this work, a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) functionalized with target-binding aptamers is used as a biosensor for the detection of thrombin protein biomarker. Furthermore, this GFET is integrated with a microfluidic device for enhanced sensing performances in terms of detection limit, sensitivity, and continuous monitoring. Under this platform, a picomolar limit of detection was achieved for measuring thrombin; in our experiment measured as low as 2.6 pM. FTIR, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy measurements weremore »performed to confirm the device functionalization steps. Based on the concentration-dependent calibration curve, a dissociation constant of K D = 375.8 pM was obtained. Continuous real-time measurements were also conducted under a constant gate voltage ( V GS ) to observe the transient response of the sensor when analyte was introduced to the device. The target selectivity of the sensor platform was evaluated and confirmed by challenging the GFET biosensor with various concentrations of lysozyme protein. The results suggest that this device technology has the potential to be used as a general diagnostic platform for measuring clinically relevant biomarkers for point-of-care applications.« less
  4. Aptamers are oligonucleotides or peptides that are selected from a pool of random sequences that exhibit high affinity toward a specific biomolecular species of interest. Therefore, they are ideal for use as recognition elements and ligands for binding to the target. In recent years, aptamers have gained a great deal of attention in the field of biosensing as the next-generation target receptors that could potentially replace the functions of antibodies. Consequently, it is increasingly becoming popular to integrate aptamers into a variety of sensing platforms to enhance specificity and selectivity in analyte detection. Simultaneously, as the fields of lab-on-a-chip (LOC)more »technology, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, and personal medicine become topics of great interest, integration of such aptamer-based sensors with LOC devices are showing promising results as evidenced by the recent growth of literature in this area. The focus of this review article is to highlight the recent progress in aptamer-based biosensor development with emphasis on the integration between aptamers and the various forms of LOC devices including microfluidic chips and paper-based microfluidics. As aptamers are extremely versatile in terms of their utilization in different detection principles, a broad range of techniques are covered including electrochemical, optical, colorimetric, and gravimetric sensing as well as surface acoustics waves and transistor-based detection.« less