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  1. We present a novel method that automatically measures quality of sentential paraphrasing. Our method balances two conflicting criteria: semantic similarity and lexical diversity. Using a diverse annotated corpus, we built learning to rank models on edit distance, BLEU, ROUGE, and cosine similarity features. Extrinsic evaluation on STS Benchmark and ParaBank Evaluation datasets resulted in a model ensemble with moderate to high quality. We applied our method on both small benchmarking and large-scale datasets as resources for the community.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 7, 2022
  2. The transcriptional coactivator YAP1 (yes-associated protein 1) is a critical nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway. The serine/threonine protein kinases STK3/4 and LATS1/2, core components of the Hippo pathway, phosphorylate and inhibit YAP1 nuclear localization. Previously, we reported that the interaction of nuclear YAP1 with androgen receptor (AR) might play a critical role in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic relapse (Kuser-Abali et al., Nat. Commun. 2015). Here, we investigated the regulation of YAP1 by androgens in isogenic, androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen non-responsive C4-2 prostate cancer cell models. We demonstrated that androgen suppressed the inhibitory phospho-Ser127 site on YAP1 in LNCaPmore »cells, but the effects of androgen on phospho-Ser127 was modest in C4-2 cells. In agreement with this observation, androgen increased the presence of nuclear YAP1 in LNCaP cells, whereas regardless of androgen exposure the YAP1 protein was primarily expressed in C4-2 cell nuclei. We also demonstrated that androgen exposure suppressed the levels of phospho-Ser127 induced by okadaic acid, which is a potent inhibitor of the Ser/Thr phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling by enzalutamide reversed the inhibitory effects of androgen on phospho-Ser127, which coincided with the inhibition of YAP1 nuclear localization. Similarly, the genetic inhibition of AR signaling by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced phospho-Ser127 levels. Additionally, the silencing of the STK3/4 and LATS1/2 signaling by siRNA resulted in increases in YAP1 protein levels. Furthermore, our analysis of the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) prostate adenocarcinoma data set indicates that the levels of YAP1 and AR mRNA expression were positively correlated in prostate cancer clinical samples. These observations suggest that AR signaling promotes YAP1 nuclear localization by suppressing phospho-Ser127, possibly through the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and supporting a new mechanism of YAP1 regulation and YAP1-mediated cancer cell growth and survival.« less
  3. The nature and extent of the spin-entanglement in the triplet-triplet biexciton with total spin zero in correlated-electron π-conjugated systems continues to be an enigma. Differences in the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of free triplets versus the triplet-triplet can give a measure of the entanglement. This, however, requires theoretical understandings of transient absorptions from the optical spin-singlet, the lowest spin-triplet exciton, as well as from the triplet-triplet state, whose spectra are often overlapping and hence difficult to distinguish. We present a many-electron theory of the electronic structure of the triplet-triplet, and of complete wavelength-dependent excited state absorptions (ESAs) from all threemore »states in a heteroacene dimer of interest in the field of intramolecular singlet fission. The theory allows direct comparisons of ESAs with existing experiments as well as experimental predictions, and gives physical understandings of transient absorptions within a pictorial exciton basis that can be carried over to other experimental systems.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2022
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  9. Abstract The first measurement of the production of pions, kaons, (anti-)protons and $$\phi $$ ϕ mesons at midrapidity in Xe–Xe collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} = 5.44~\text {TeV}$$ s NN = 5.44 TeV is presented. Transverse momentum ( $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T ) spectra and $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T -integrated yields are extracted in several centrality intervals bridging from p–Pb to mid-central Pb–Pb collisions in terms of final-state multiplicity. The study of Xe–Xe and Pb–Pb collisions allows systems at similar charged-particle multiplicities but with different initial geometrical eccentricities to be investigated. A detailed comparison of the spectral shapes in the two systems reveals anmore »opposite behaviour for radial and elliptic flow. In particular, this study shows that the radial flow does not depend on the colliding system when compared at similar charged-particle multiplicity. In terms of hadron chemistry, the previously observed smooth evolution of particle ratios with multiplicity from small to large collision systems is also found to hold in Xe–Xe. In addition, our results confirm that two remarkable features of particle production at LHC energies are also valid in the collision of medium-sized nuclei: the lower proton-to-pion ratio with respect to the thermal model expectations and the increase of the $$\phi $$ ϕ -to-pion ratio with increasing final-state multiplicity.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  10. Abstract The production of $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± , $$\mathrm{K}^{\pm }$$ K ± , $$\mathrm{K}^{0}_{S}$$ K S 0 , $$\mathrm{K}^{*}(892)^{0}$$ K ∗ ( 892 ) 0 , $$\mathrm{p}$$ p , $$\phi (1020)$$ ϕ ( 1020 ) , $$\Lambda $$ Λ , $$\Xi ^{-}$$ Ξ - , $$\Omega ^{-}$$ Ω - , and their antiparticles was measured in inelastic proton–proton (pp) collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 13 TeV at midrapidity ( $$|y|<0.5$$ | y | < 0.5 ) as a function of transverse momentum ( $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T ) using the ALICE detector at the CERNmore »LHC. Furthermore, the single-particle $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T distributions of $$\mathrm{K}^{0}_{S}$$ K S 0 , $$\Lambda $$ Λ , and $$\overline{\Lambda }$$ Λ ¯ in inelastic pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 7$$ s = 7  TeV are reported here for the first time. The $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T distributions are studied at midrapidity within the transverse momentum range $$0\le p_{\mathrm{T}}\le 20$$ 0 ≤ p T ≤ 20 GeV/ c , depending on the particle species. The $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T spectra, integrated yields, and particle yield ratios are discussed as a function of collision energy and compared with measurements at lower $$\sqrt{s}$$ s and with results from various general-purpose QCD-inspired Monte Carlo models. A hardening of the spectra at high $$p_{\mathrm{T}}$$ p T with increasing collision energy is observed, which is similar for all particle species under study. The transverse mass and $$x_{\mathrm{T}}\equiv 2p_{\mathrm{T}}/\sqrt{s}$$ x T ≡ 2 p T / s scaling properties of hadron production are also studied. As the collision energy increases from $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 7–13 TeV, the yields of non- and single-strange hadrons normalized to the pion yields remain approximately constant as a function of $$\sqrt{s}$$ s , while ratios for multi-strange hadrons indicate enhancements. The $$p_\mathrm{{T}}$$ p T -differential cross sections of $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± , $$\mathrm {K}^{\pm }$$ K ± and $$\mathrm {p}$$ p ( $$\overline{\mathrm{p}}$$ p ¯ ) are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations, which are found to overestimate the cross sections for $$\pi ^{\pm }$$ π ± and $$\mathrm{p}$$ p ( $$\overline{\mathrm{p}}$$ p ¯ ) at high $$p_\mathrm{{T}}$$ p T .« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2022