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  1. Haeussler Boha, C. ; Pecore, J.L. ; Allaire, F.S. (Ed.)
    The success of our project depended on forming a trusting, collaborative relationship with teachers and conducting in-depth interviews with adolescents who had never met our team. Yet, when we were ready to launch this work, it was not safe to meet with teachers or students in-person due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Nor was it possible to conduct site visits to the school. How could we continue collaborative module development and conduct meaningful research when the in-person methods we planned for our study were no longer feasible given the health and safety challenges of the pandemic? Our team had to make important decisions about module development and deployment while keeping students' and teachers' health and safety in mind. Rather than focusing on the problems of being unable to perform face-to-face data collection or module development, we began exploring new and alternative technological solutions. Building trust and engaging teachers while negotiating the communicative and relational restrictions inherent in online interactions was another challenge addressed in the paper. 
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    Galactic plane radio surveys play a key role in improving our understanding of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. Performing such a survey using the latest interferometric telescopes produces large data rates necessitating a shift towards fully or quasi-real-time data analysis with data being stored for only the time required to process them. We present here the overview and set-up for the 3000-h Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR)–MeerKAT Galactic Plane Survey (MMGPS). The survey is unique by operating in a commensal mode, addressing key science objectives of the survey including the discovery of new pulsars and transients and studies of Galactic magnetism, the interstellar medium and star formation rates. We explain the strategy coupled with the necessary hardware and software infrastructure needed for data reduction in the imaging, spectral, and time domains. We have so far discovered 78 new pulsars including 17 confirmed binary systems of which two are potential double neutron star systems. We have also developed an imaging pipeline sensitive to the order of a few tens of micro-Jansky ($\mu{\rm Jy}$) with a spatial resolution of a few arcseconds. Further science operations with an in-house built S-band receiver operating between 1.7 and 3.5 GHz are about to commence. Early spectral line commissioning observations conducted at S-band, targeting transitions of the key molecular gas tracer CH at 3.3 GHz already illustrate the spectroscopic capabilities of this instrument. These results lay a strong foundation for future surveys with telescopes like the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

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  3. We present a novel method that automatically measures quality of sentential paraphrasing. Our method balances two conflicting criteria: semantic similarity and lexical diversity. Using a diverse annotated corpus, we built learning to rank models on edit distance, BLEU, ROUGE, and cosine similarity features. Extrinsic evaluation on STS Benchmark and ParaBank Evaluation datasets resulted in a model ensemble with moderate to high quality. We applied our method on both small benchmarking and large-scale datasets as resources for the community. 
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  4. The transcriptional coactivator YAP1 (yes-associated protein 1) is a critical nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway. The serine/threonine protein kinases STK3/4 and LATS1/2, core components of the Hippo pathway, phosphorylate and inhibit YAP1 nuclear localization. Previously, we reported that the interaction of nuclear YAP1 with androgen receptor (AR) might play a critical role in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic relapse (Kuser-Abali et al., Nat. Commun. 2015). Here, we investigated the regulation of YAP1 by androgens in isogenic, androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen non-responsive C4-2 prostate cancer cell models. We demonstrated that androgen suppressed the inhibitory phospho-Ser127 site on YAP1 in LNCaP cells, but the effects of androgen on phospho-Ser127 was modest in C4-2 cells. In agreement with this observation, androgen increased the presence of nuclear YAP1 in LNCaP cells, whereas regardless of androgen exposure the YAP1 protein was primarily expressed in C4-2 cell nuclei. We also demonstrated that androgen exposure suppressed the levels of phospho-Ser127 induced by okadaic acid, which is a potent inhibitor of the Ser/Thr phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling by enzalutamide reversed the inhibitory effects of androgen on phospho-Ser127, which coincided with the inhibition of YAP1 nuclear localization. Similarly, the genetic inhibition of AR signaling by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced phospho-Ser127 levels. Additionally, the silencing of the STK3/4 and LATS1/2 signaling by siRNA resulted in increases in YAP1 protein levels. Furthermore, our analysis of the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) prostate adenocarcinoma data set indicates that the levels of YAP1 and AR mRNA expression were positively correlated in prostate cancer clinical samples. These observations suggest that AR signaling promotes YAP1 nuclear localization by suppressing phospho-Ser127, possibly through the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and supporting a new mechanism of YAP1 regulation and YAP1-mediated cancer cell growth and survival. 
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  5. The nature and extent of the spin-entanglement in the triplet-triplet biexciton with total spin zero in correlated-electron π-conjugated systems continues to be an enigma. Differences in the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of free triplets versus the triplet-triplet can give a measure of the entanglement. This, however, requires theoretical understandings of transient absorptions from the optical spin-singlet, the lowest spin-triplet exciton, as well as from the triplet-triplet state, whose spectra are often overlapping and hence difficult to distinguish. We present a many-electron theory of the electronic structure of the triplet-triplet, and of complete wavelength-dependent excited state absorptions (ESAs) from all three states in a heteroacene dimer of interest in the field of intramolecular singlet fission. The theory allows direct comparisons of ESAs with existing experiments as well as experimental predictions, and gives physical understandings of transient absorptions within a pictorial exciton basis that can be carried over to other experimental systems. 
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  6. Abstract

    We search for gravitational-wave (GW) transients associated with fast radio bursts (FRBs) detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project, during the first part of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 April 1 15:00 UTC–2019 October 1 15:00 UTC). Triggers from 22 FRBs were analyzed with a search that targets both binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers. A targeted search for generic GW transients was conducted on 40 FRBs. We find no significant evidence for a GW association in either search. Given the large uncertainties in the distances of our FRB sample, we are unable to exclude the possibility of a GW association. Assessing the volumetric event rates of both FRB and binary mergers, an association is limited to 15% of the FRB population for BNS mergers or 1% for NSBH mergers. We report 90% confidence lower bounds on the distance to each FRB for a range of GW progenitor models and set upper limits on the energy emitted through GWs for a range of emission scenarios. We find values of order 1051–1057erg for models with central GW frequencies in the range 70–3560 Hz. At the sensitivity of this search, we find these limits to be above the predicted GW emissions for the models considered. We also find no significant coincident detection of GWs with the repeater, FRB 20200120E, which is the closest known extragalactic FRB.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  9. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    The production of strange hadrons ($$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0, Λ, Ξ±, and Ω±), baryon-to-meson ratios (Λ/$$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0, Ξ/$$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0, and Ω/$$ {\textrm{K}}_{\textrm{S}}^0 $$KS0), and baryon-to-baryon ratios (Ξ/Λ, Ω/Λ, and Ω/Ξ) associated with jets and the underlying event were measured as a function of transverse momentum (pT) in pp collisions at$$ \sqrt{s} $$s= 13 TeV and p Pb collisions at$$ \sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} $$sNN= 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The inclusive production of the same particle species and the corresponding ratios are also reported. The production of multi-strange hadrons, Ξ±and Ω±, and their associated particle ratios in jets and in the underlying event are measured for the first time. In both pp and p–Pb collisions, the baryon-to-meson and baryon-to-baryon yield ratios measured in jets differ from the inclusive particle production for low and intermediate hadronpT(0.6–6 GeV/c). Ratios measured in the underlying event are in turn similar to those measured for inclusive particle production. In pp collisions, the particle production in jets is compared with Pythia8 predictions with three colour-reconnection implementation modes. None of them fully reproduces the data in the measured hadronpTregion. The maximum deviation is observed for Ξ±and Ω±which reaches a factor of about six. The event multiplicity dependence is further investigated in p−Pb collisions. In contrast to what is observed in the underlying event, there is no significant event-multiplicity dependence for particle production in jets. The presented measurements provide novel constraints on hadronisation and its Monte Carlo description. In particular, they demonstrate that the fragmentation of jets alone is insufficient to describe the strange and multi-strange particle production in hadronic collisions at LHC energies.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024