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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Surface texture influences wear and tribological properties of manufactured parts, and it plays a critical role in end-user products. Therefore, quantifying the order or structure of a manufactured surface provides important information on the quality and life expectancy of the product. Although texture can be intentionally introduced to enhance aesthetics or to satisfy a design function, sometimes it is an inevitable byproduct of surface treatment processes such as Piezo Vibration Striking Treatment (PVST). Measures of order for surfaces have been characterized using statistical, spectral, and geometric approaches. For nearly hexagonal lattices, topological tools have also been used to measure the surface order. This paper explores utilizing tools from Topological Data Analysis for measuring surface texture. We compute measures of order based on optical digital microscope images of surfaces treated using PVST. These measures are applied to the grid obtained from estimating the centers of tool impacts, and they quantify the grid’s deviations from the nominal one. Our results show that TDA provides a convenient framework for characterization of pattern type that bypasses some limitations of existing tools such as difficult manual processing of the data and the need for an expert user to analyze and interpret the surface images.

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    Bifurcations in dynamical systems characterize qualitative changes in the system behavior. Therefore, their detection is important because they can signal the transition from normal system operation to imminent failure. In an experimental setting, this transition could lead to incorrect data or damage to the entire experiment. While standard persistent homology has been used in this setting, it usually requires analyzing a collection of persistence diagrams, which in turn drives up the computational cost considerably. Using zigzag persistence, we can capture topological changes in the state space of the dynamical system in only one persistence diagram. Here, we present Bifurcations using ZigZag (BuZZ), a one-step method to study and detect bifurcations using zigzag persistence. The BuZZ method is successfully able to detect this type of behavior in two synthetic examples as well as an example dynamical system. 
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  4. As the field of Topological Data Analysis continues to show success in theory and in applications, there has been increasing interest in using tools from this field with methods for machine learning. Using persistent homology, specifically persistence diagrams, as inputs to machine learning techniques requires some mathematical creativity. The space of persistence diagrams does not have the desirable properties for machine learning, thus methods such as kernel methods and vectorization methods have been developed. One such featurization of persistence diagrams by Perea, Munch and Khasawneh uses continuous, compactly supported functions, referred to as "template functions," which results in a stable vector representation of the persistence diagram. In this paper, we provide a method of adaptively partitioning persistence diagrams to improve these featurizations based on localized information in the diagrams. Additionally, we provide a framework to adaptively select parameters required for the template functions in order to best utilize the partitioning method. We present results for application to example data sets comparing classification results between template function featurizations with and without partitioning, in addition to other methods from the literature. 
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  5. Chatter detection has become a prominent subject of interest due to its effect on cutting tool life, surface finish and spindle of machine tool. Most of the existing methods in chatter detection literature are based on signal processing and signal decomposition. In this study, we use topological features of data simulating cutting tool vibrations, combined with four supervised machine learning algorithms to diagnose chatter in the milling process. Persistence diagrams, a method of representing topological features, are not easily used in the context of machine learning, so they must be transformed into a form that is more amenable. Specifically, we will focus on two different methods for featurizing persistence diagrams, Carlsson coordinates and template functions. In this paper, we provide classification results for simulated data from various cutting configurations, including upmilling and downmilling, in addition to the same data with some added noise. Our results show that Carlsson Coordinates and Template Functions yield accuracies as high as 96% and 95%, respectively. We also provide evidence that these topological methods are noise robust descriptors for chatter detection. 
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