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Creators/Authors contains: "Kholodov, Alexander L."

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  1. Abstract

    In the Arctic, winter soil temperatures exert strong control over mean annual soil temperature and winter CO2emissions. In tundra ecosystems there is evidence that plant canopy influences on snow accumulation alter winter soil temperatures. By comparison, there has been relatively little research examining the impacts of heterogeneity in boreal forest cover on soil temperatures. Using seven years of data from six sites in northeastern Siberia that vary in stem density we show that snow-depth and forest canopy cover exert equally strong control on cumulative soil freezing degrees days (FDDsoil). Together snow depth and canopy cover explain approximately 75% of the variance in linear models of FDDsoiland freezingn-factors (nf; calculated as the quotient of FDDsoiland FDDair), across sites and years. Including variables related to air temperature, or antecedent soil temperatures does not substantially improve models. The observed increase in FDDsoilwith canopy cover suggests that canopy interception of snow or thermal conduction through trees may be important for winter soil temperature dynamics in forested ecosystems underlain by continuous permafrost. Our results imply that changes in Siberian larch forest cover that arise from climate warming or fire regime changes may have important impacts on winter soil temperature dynamics.

     
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Abstract. Soils in Arctic and boreal ecosystems store twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, a portion of which may be released as high-latitude soils warm. Some of the uncertainty in the timing and magnitude of the permafrost–climate feedback stems from complex interactions between ecosystem properties and soil thermal dynamics. Terrestrial ecosystems fundamentally regulate the response of permafrost to climate change by influencing surface energy partitioning and the thermal properties of soil itself. Here we review how Arctic and boreal ecosystem processes influence thermal dynamics in permafrost soil and how these linkages may evolve in response to climate change. While many of the ecosystem characteristics and processes affecting soil thermal dynamics have been examined individually (e.g., vegetation, soil moisture, and soil structure), interactions among these processes are less understood. Changes in ecosystem type and vegetation characteristics will alter spatial patterns of interactions between climate and permafrost. In addition to shrub expansion, other vegetation responses to changes in climate and rapidly changing disturbance regimes will affect ecosystem surface energy partitioning in ways that are important for permafrost. Lastly, changes in vegetation and ecosystem distribution will lead to regional and global biophysical and biogeochemical climate feedbacks that may compound or offset local impacts on permafrost soils. Consequently, accurate prediction of the permafrost carbon climate feedback will require detailed understanding of changes in terrestrial ecosystem distribution and function, which depend on the net effects of multiple feedback processes operating across scales in space and time. 
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  3. Abstract

    Transpiration and stomatal conductance in deciduous needleleaf boreal forests of northern Siberia can be highly sensitive to water stress, permafrost thaw, and atmospheric dryness. Additionally, north‐eastern Siberian boreal forests are fire‐driven, and larch (Larixspp.) are the sole tree species. We examined differences in tree water use, stand characteristics, and stomatal responses to environmental drivers between high and low tree density stands that burned 76 years ago in north‐eastern Siberia. Our results provide process‐level insight to climate feedbacks related to boreal forest productivity, water cycles, and permafrost across Arctic regions. The high density stand had shallower permafrost thaw depths and deeper moss layers than the low density stand. Rooting depths and shallow root biomass were similar between stands. Daily transpiration was higher on average in the high‐density stand 0.12 L m−2 day−1(SE: 0.004) compared with the low density stand 0.10 L m−2 day−1(SE: 0.001) throughout the abnormally wet summer of 2016. Transpiration rates tended to be similar at both stands during the dry period in 2017 in both stands of 0.10 L m−2 day−1(SE: 0.002). The timing of precipitation impacted stomatal responses to environmental drivers, and the high density stand was more dependent on antecedent precipitation that occurred over longer periods in the past compared with the low density stand. Post‐fire tree density differences in plant–water relations may lead to different trajectories in plant mortality, water stress, and ecosystem water cycles across Siberian landscapes.

     
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