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  1. Training acoustic models with sequentially incoming data – while both leveraging new data and avoiding the forgetting effect – is an essential obstacle to achieving human intelligence level in speech recognition. An obvious approach to leverage data from a new domain (e.g., new accented speech) is to first generate a comprehensive dataset of all domains, by combining all available data, and then use this dataset to retrain the acoustic models. However, as the amount of training data grows, storing and retraining on such a large-scale dataset becomes practically impossible. To deal with this problem, in this study, we study severalmore »domain expansion techniques which exploit only the data of the new domain to build a stronger model for all domains. These techniques are aimed at learning the new domain with a minimal forgetting effect (i.e., they maintain original model performance). These techniques modify the adaptation procedure by imposing new constraints including (1) weight constraint adaptation (WCA): keeping the model parameters close to the original model parameters; (2) elastic weight consolidation (EWC): slowing down training for parameters that are important for previously established domains; (3) soft KL-divergence (SKLD): restricting the KL-divergence between the original and the adapted model output distributions; and (4) hybrid SKLD-EWC: incorporating both SKLD and EWC constraints. We evaluate these techniques in an accent adaptation task in which we adapt a deep neural network (DNN) acoustic model trained with native English to three different English accents: Australian, Hispanic, and Indian. The experimental results show that SKLD significantly outperforms EWC, and EWC works better than WCA. The hybrid SKLD-EWC technique results in the best overall performance.« less
  2. Time-continuous dimensional descriptions of emotions (e.g., arousal, valence) allow researchers to characterize short-time changes and to capture long-term trends in emotion expression. However, continuous emotion labels are generally not synchronized with the input speech signal due to delays caused by reaction-time, which is inherent in human evaluations. To deal with this challenge, we introduce a new convolutional neural network (multi-delay sinc network) that is able to simultaneously align and predict labels in an end-to-end manner. The proposed network is a stack of convolutional layers followed by an aligner network that aligns the speech signal and emotion labels. This network ismore »implemented using a new convolutional layer that we introduce, the delayed sinc layer. It is a time-shifted low-pass (sinc) filter that uses a gradient-based algorithm to learn a single delay. Multiple delayed sinc layers can be used to compensate for a non-stationary delay that is a function of the acoustic space. We test the efficacy of this system on two common emotion datasets, RECOLA and SEWA, and show that this approach obtains state-of-the-art speech-only results by learning time-varying delays while predicting dimensional descriptors of emotions.« less
  3. DTW calculates the similarity or alignment between two signals, subject to temporal warping. However, its computational complexity grows exponentially with the number of time-series. Although there have been algorithms developed that are linear in the number of time-series, they are generally quadratic in time-series length. The exception is generalized time warping (GTW), which has linear computational cost. Yet, it can only identify simple time warping functions. There is a need for a new fast, high-quality multisequence alignment algorithm. We introduce trainable time warping (TTW), whose complexity is linear in both the number and the length of time-series. TTW performs alignmentmore »in the continuoustime domain using a sinc convolutional kernel and a gradient-based optimization technique. We compare TTW and GTW on S5 UCR datasets in time-series averaging and classification. TTW outperforms GTW on 67.1% of the datasets for the averaging tasks, and 61.2% of the datasets for the classification tasks.« less
  4. Bipolar Disorder is a chronic psychiatric illness characterized by pathological mood swings associated with severe disruptions in emotion regulation. Clinical monitoring of mood is key to the care of these dynamic and incapacitating mood states. Frequent and detailed monitoring improves clinical sensitivity to detect mood state changes, but typically requires costly and limited resources. Speech characteristics change during both depressed and manic states, suggesting automatic methods applied to the speech signal can be effectively used to monitor mood state changes. However, speech is modulated by many factors, which renders mood state prediction challenging. We hypothesize that emotion can be usedmore »as an intermediary step to improve mood state prediction. This paper presents critical steps in developing this pipeline, including (1) a new in the wild emotion dataset, the PRIORI Emotion Dataset, collected from everyday smartphone conversational speech recordings, (2) activation/valence emotion recognition baselines on this dataset (PCC of 0.71 and 0.41, respectively), and (3) significant correlation between predicted emotion and mood state for individuals with bipolar disorder. This provides evidence and a working baseline for the use of emotion as a meta-feature for mood state monitoring.« less