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Creators/Authors contains: "Kieber, Joseph J."

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  1. Abstract

    The phytohormone ethylene controls plant growth and stress responses. Ethylene-exposed dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings exhibit dramatic growth reduction, yet the seedlings rapidly return to the basal growth rate when ethylene gas is removed. However, the underlying mechanism governing this acclimation of dark-grown seedlings to ethylene remains enigmatic. Here, we report that ethylene triggers the translocation of the Raf-like protein kinase CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1), a negative regulator of ethylene signaling, from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus. Nuclear-localized CTR1 stabilizes the ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor by interacting with and inhibiting EIN3-BINDING F-box (EBF) proteins, thus enhancing the ethylene response and delaying growth recovery. Furthermore, Arabidopsis plants with enhanced nuclear-localized CTR1 exhibited improved tolerance to drought and salinity stress. These findings uncover a mechanism of the ethylene signaling pathway that links the spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular signaling components to physiological responses.

  2. Abstract

    The receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a versatile regulator of plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and reproduction. To gain new insights into the molecular interplay of these processes and to identify new FER functions, we carried out quantitative transcriptome, proteome, and phosphoproteome profiling of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild-type and fer-4 loss-of-function mutant plants. Gene ontology terms for phytohormone signaling, abiotic stress, and biotic stress were significantly enriched among differentially expressed transcripts, differentially abundant proteins, and/or misphosphorylated proteins, in agreement with the known roles for FER in these processes. Analysis of multiomics data and subsequent experimental evidence revealed previously unknown functions for FER in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation and glucosinolate biosynthesis. FER functions through the transcription factor NAI1 to mediate ER body formation. FER also negatively regulates indole glucosinolate biosynthesis, partially through NAI1. Furthermore, we found that a group of abscisic acid (ABA)-induced transcription factors is hypophosphorylated in the fer-4 mutant and demonstrated that FER acts through the transcription factor ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) to negatively regulate the ABA response during cotyledon greening. Our integrated omics study, therefore, reveals novel functions for FER and provides new insights into the underlying mechanisms of FER function.

  3. Plant cell walls are dynamic structures that are synthesized by plants to provide durable coverings for the delicate cells they encase. They are made of polysaccharides, proteins, and other biomolecules and have evolved to withstand large amounts of physical force and to resist external attack by herbivores and pathogens but can in many cases expand, contract, and undergo controlled degradation and reconstruction to facilitate developmental transitions and regulate plant physiology and reproduction. Recent advances in genetics, microscopy, biochemistry, structural biology, and physical characterization methods have revealed a diverse set of mechanisms by which plant cells dynamically monitor and regulate the composition and architecture of their cell walls, but much remains to be discovered about how the nanoscale assembly of these remarkable structures underpins the majestic forms and vital ecological functions achieved by plants.
  4. The phytohormone cytokinin influences many aspects of plant growth and development, several of which also involve the cellular process of autophagy, including leaf senescence, nutrient remobilization, and developmental transitions. TheArabidopsistype-A response regulators (type-A ARR) are negative regulators of cytokinin signaling that are transcriptionally induced in response to cytokinin. Here, we describe a mechanistic link between cytokinin signaling and autophagy, demonstrating that plants modulate cytokinin sensitivity through autophagic regulation of type-A ARR proteins. Type-A ARR proteins were degraded by autophagy in an AUTOPHAGY-RELATED (ATG)5-dependent manner, and this degradation is promoted by phosphorylation on a conserved aspartate in the receiver domain of the type-A ARRs. EXO70D family members interacted with type-A ARR proteins, likely in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, and recruited them to autophagosomes via interaction of the EXO70D AIM with the core autophagy protein, ATG8. Consistently, loss-of-functionexo70D1,2,3mutants exhibited compromised targeting of type-A ARRs to autophagic vesicles, have elevated levels of type-A ARR proteins, and are hyposensitive to cytokinin. Disruption of both type-AARRsandEXO70D1,2,3compromised survival in carbon-deficient conditions, suggesting interaction between autophagy and cytokinin responsiveness in response to stress. These results indicate that the EXO70D proteins act as selective autophagy receptors to target type-A ARR cargos for autophagic degradation, demonstrating modulation of cytokinin signalingmore »by selective autophagy.

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