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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 4, 2024
  2. Optical networks satisfy high bandwidth and low latency requirements for telecommunication networks and data center interconnection. To improve network resource utilization, machine learning (ML) is used to accurately model optical amplifiers such as erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), which impact end-to-end system performance such as quality of transmission. However, a comprehensive measurement dataset is required for ML to accurately predict an EDFA’s wavelength-dependent gain. We present an open dataset consisting of 202,752 gain spectrum measurements collected from 16 commercial-grade reconfigurable optical add–drop multiplexer (ROADM) booster and pre-amplifier EDFAs under varying gain settings and diverse channel-loading configurations over 2,785 hours in total, with a total dataset size of 3.1 GB. With this EDFA dataset, we implemented component-level deep-neural-network-based EDFA models and use transfer learning (TL) to transfer the EDFA model among 16 ROADM EDFAs, which achieve less than 0.18/0.24 dB mean absolute error for booster/pre-amplifier gain prediction using only 0.5% of the full target training set. We also showed that TL reduces the EDFA data collection requirements on a new gain setting or a different type of EDFA on the same ROADM.

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  3. There are increasing requirements for data center interconnection (DCI) services, which use fiber to connect any DC distributed in a metro area and quickly establish high-capacity optical paths between cloud services and mobile edge computing and the users. In such networks, coherent transceivers with various optical frequency ranges, modulators, and modulation formats installed at each connection point must be used to meet service requirements such as fast-varying traffic requests between user computing resources. This requires technology and architectures that enable users and DCI operators to cooperate to achieve fast provisioning of WDM links and flexible route switching in a short time, independent of the transceiver’s implementation and characteristics. We propose an approach to estimate the end-to-end (EtE) generalized signal-to-noise ratio (GSNR) accurately in a short time, not by measuring the GSNR at the operational route and wavelength for the EtE optical path but by simply applying a quality of transmission probe channel link by link, at a wavelength/modulation-format convenient for measurement. Assuming connections between transceivers of various frequency ranges, modulators, and modulation formats, we propose a device software architecture in which the DCI operator optimizes the transmission mode between user transceivers with high accuracy using only common parameters such as the bit error rate. In this paper, we first implement software libraries for fast WDM provisioning and experimentally build different routes to verify the accuracy of this approach. For the operational EtE GSNR measurements, the accuracy estimated from the sum of the measurements for each link was 0.6 dB, and the wavelength-dependent error was about 0.2 dB. Then, using field fibers deployed in the NSF COSMOS testbed, a Linux-based transmission device software architecture, and transceivers with different optical frequency ranges, modulators, and modulation formats, the fast WDM provisioning of an optical path was completed within 6 min.

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  4. We demonstrated under six minutes automatic provisioning of optical paths over field- deployed alien access links and WDM carrier links using commercial-grade ROADMs, whitebox mux- ponders, and multi-vendor transceivers. With channel probing, transfer learning, and Gaussian noise model, we achieved an estimation error (Q-factor) below 0.7 dB. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
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  6. Optical transmission systems with high spectral efficiency require accurate quality of transmission estimation for optical channel provisioning. However, the wavelength-dependent gain effects of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) complicate precise optical channel power prediction and low-margin operation. In this work, we examine supervised machine learning methods using multiple artificial neural networks (ANNs) to build models for gain spectra prediction of optical transmission line EDFAs under different operating conditions. Channel-loading configurations and channel input power spectra are used as an a posteriori knowledge data feature for model training. In a hybrid learning approach, estimated gain spectra calculated by an analytical model are added as an a priori input data feature to further improve the EDFA ANN model performance in terms of prediction accuracy, training time, and quantity of training data. Using these methods, the root mean square error and maximum absolute error of the predicted channel output power can be as low as 0.144 dB and 1.6 dB, respectively.

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  7. Metro and data center networks are growing rapidly, while global fixed Internet traffic growth shows evidence of slowing. An analysis of the distribution of network capacity versus distance reveals capacity gaps in networks important to wireless backhaul networks and cloud computing. These networks are built from layers of electronic aggregation switches. Photonic integration and software-defined networking control are identified as key enabling technologies for the use of optical switching in these applications. Advances in optical switching for data center and metro networks in the CIAN engineering research center are reviewed and examined as potential directions for optical communication system evolution.

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  8. A hybrid machine learning (HML) model combining a-priori and a-posteriori knowledge is implemented and tested, which is shown to reduce the prediction error and training complexity, compared to an analytical or neural network learning model. 
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  9. Abstract: A hybrid machine learning (HML) model combining a-priori and a-posteriori knowledge is implemented and tested, which is shown to reduce the prediction error and training complexity, compared to an analytical or neural network learning model. 
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