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  1. Context. On 2020 November 29, an eruptive event occurred in an active region located behind the eastern solar limb as seen from Earth. The event consisted of an M4.4 class flare, a coronal mass ejection, an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave, and a white-light (WL) shock wave. The eruption gave rise to the first widespread solar energetic particle (SEP) event of solar cycle 25, which was observed at four widely separated heliospheric locations (∼230°). Aims. Our aim is to better understand the source of this widespread SEP event, examine the role of the coronal shock wave in the wide distribution of SEPs, and investigate the shock wave properties at the field lines magnetically connected to the spacecraft. Methods. Using EUV and WL data, we reconstructed the global three-dimensional structure of the shock in the corona and computed its kinematics. We determined the magnetic field configurations in the corona and interplanetary space, inferred the magnetic connectivity of the spacecraft with the shock surface, and derived the evolution of the shock parameters at the connecting field lines. Results. Remote sensing observations show formation of the coronal shock wave occurring early during the eruption, and its rapid propagation to distant locations. The results ofmore »the shock wave modelling show multiple regions where a strong shock has formed and efficient particle acceleration is expected to take place. The pressure/shock wave is magnetically connected to all spacecraft locations before or during the estimated SEP release times. The release of the observed near-relativistic electrons occurs predominantly close to the time when the pressure/shock wave connects to the magnetic field lines or when the shock wave becomes supercritical, whereas the proton release is significantly delayed with respect to the time when the shock wave becomes supercritical, with the only exception being the proton release at the Parker Solar Probe. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the shock wave plays an important role in the spread of SEPs. Supercritical shock regions are connected to most of the spacecraft. The particle increase at Earth, which is barely connected to the wave, also suggests that the cross-field transport cannot be ignored. The release of energetic electrons seems to occur close to the time when the shock wave connects to, or becomes supercritical at, the field lines connecting to the spacecraft. Energetic protons are released with a time-delay relative to the time when the pressure/shock wave connects to the spacecraft locations. We attribute this delay to the time that it takes for the shock wave to accelerate protons efficiently.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Aims. An interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) event was observed by the Solar Orbiter at 0.8 AU on 2020 April 19 and by Wind at 1 AU on 2020 April 20. Futhermore, an interplanetary shock wave was driven in front of the ICME. Here, we focus on the transmission of the magnetic fluctuations across the shock and we analyze the characteristic wave modes of solar wind turbulence in the vicinity of the shock observed by both spacecraft. Methods. The observed ICME event is characterized by a magnetic helicity-based technique. The ICME-driven shock normal was determined by magnetic coplanarity method for the Solar Orbiter and using a mixed plasma and field approach for Wind. The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations were generated by applying both a fast Fourier transform and Morlet wavelet analysis. To understand the nature of waves observed near the shock, we used the normalized magnetic helicity as a diagnostic parameter. The wavelet-reconstructed magnetic field fluctuation hodograms were used to further study the polarization properties of waves. Results. We find that the ICME-driven shock observed by Solar Orbiter and Wind is a fast, forward oblique shock with a more perpendicular shock angle at the Wind position. After themore »shock crossing, the magnetic field fluctuation power increases. Most of the magnetic field fluctuation power resides in the transverse fluctuations. In the vicinity of the shock, both spacecraft observe right-hand polarized waves in the spacecraft frame. The upstream wave signatures fall within a relatively broad and low frequency band, which might be attributed to low frequency MHD waves excited by the streaming particles. For the downstream magnetic wave activity, we find oblique kinetic Alfvén waves with frequencies near the proton cyclotron frequency in the spacecraft frame. The frequency of the downstream waves increases by a factor of ∼7–10 due to the shock compression and the Doppler effect.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions of magnetised plasma from the Sun that are often accompanied by solar radio bursts produced by accelerated electrons. Aims. A powerful source for accelerating electron beams are CME-driven shocks, however, there are other mechanisms capable of accelerating electrons during a CME eruption. So far, studies have relied on the traditional classification of solar radio bursts into five groups (Type I–V) based mainly on their shapes and characteristics in dynamic spectra. Here, we aim to determine the origin of moving radio bursts associated with a CME that do not fit into the present classification of the solar radio emission. Methods. By using radio imaging from the Nançay Radioheliograph, combined with observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we investigate the moving radio bursts accompanying two subsequent CMEs on 22 May 2013. We use three-dimensional reconstructions of the two associated CME eruptions to show the possible origin of the observed radio emission. Results. We identified three moving radio bursts at unusually high altitudes in the corona that are located at the northern CME flank and move outwards synchronously with the CME. The radio bursts correspondmore »to fine-structured emission in dynamic spectra with durations of ∼1 s, and they may show forward or reverse frequency drifts. Since the CME expands closely following an earlier CME, a low coronal CME–CME interaction is likely responsible for the observed radio emission. Conclusions. For the first time, we report the existence of new types of short duration bursts, which are signatures of electron beams accelerated at the CME flank. Two subsequent CMEs originating from the same region and propagating in similar directions provide a complex configuration of the ambient magnetic field and favourable conditions for the creation of collapsing magnetic traps. These traps are formed if a CME-driven wave, such as a shock wave, is likely to intersect surrounding magnetic field lines twice. Electrons will thus be further accelerated at the mirror points created at these intersections and eventually escape to produce bursts of plasma emission with forward and reverse drifts.« less
  4. Context. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest explosions in the Solar System that can drive powerful plasma shocks. The eruptions, shocks, and other processes associated to CMEs are efficient particle accelerators and the accelerated electrons in particular can produce radio bursts through the plasma emission mechanism. Aims. Coronal mass ejections and associated radio bursts have been well studied in cases where the CME originates close to the solar limb or within the frontside disc. Here, we study the radio emission associated with a CME eruption on the back side of the Sun on 22 July 2012. Methods. Using radio imaging from the Nançay Radioheliograph, spectroscopic data from the Nançay Decametric Array, and extreme-ultraviolet observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft, we determine the nature of the observed radio emission as well as the location and propagation of the CME. Results. We show that the observed low-intensity radio emission corresponds to a type II radio burst or a short-duration type IV radio burst associated with a CME eruption due to breakout reconnection on the back side of the Sun, as suggested by the pre-eruptive magnetic field configuration. The radio emission consists ofmore »a large, extended structure, initially located ahead of the CME, that corresponds to various electron acceleration locations. Conclusions. The observations presented here are consistent with the breakout model of CME eruptions. The extended radio emission coincides with the location of the current sheet and quasi-separatrix boundary of the CME flux and the overlying helmet streamer and also with that of a large shock expected to form ahead of the CME in this configuration.« less