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  1. Context. Until recently, the 3D shape, and therefore density (when combining the volume estimate with available mass estimates), and surface topography of the vast majority of the largest ( D   ≥ 100 km) main-belt asteroids have remained poorly constrained. The improved capabilities of the SPHERE/ZIMPOL instrument have opened new doors into ground-based asteroid exploration. Aims. To constrain the formation and evolution of a representative sample of large asteroids, we conducted a high-angular-resolution imaging survey of 42 large main-belt asteroids with VLT/SPHERE/ZIMPOL. Our asteroid sample comprises 39 bodies with D   ≥ 100 km and in particular most D   ≥ 200 km main-belt asteroids (20/23). Furthermore, it nicely reflects the compositional diversity present in the main belt as the sampled bodies belong to the following taxonomic classes: A, B, C, Ch/Cgh, E/M/X, K, P/T, S, and V. Methods. The SPHERE/ZIMPOL images were first used to reconstruct the 3D shape of all targets with both the ADAM and MPCD reconstruction methods. We subsequently performed a detailed shape analysis and constrained the density of each target using available mass estimates including our own mass estimates in the case of multiple systems. Results. The analysis of the reconstructed shapes allowed us tomore »identify two families of objects as a function of their diameters, namely “spherical” and “elongated” bodies. A difference in rotation period appears to be the main origin of this bimodality. In addition, all but one object (216 Kleopatra) are located along the Maclaurin sequence with large volatile-rich bodies being the closest to the latter. Our results further reveal that the primaries of most multiple systems possess a rotation period of shorter than 6 h and an elongated shape ( c ∕ a ≤ 0.65). Densities in our sample range from ~1.3 g cm −3 (87 Sylvia) to ~4.3 g cm −3 (22 Kalliope). Furthermore, the density distribution appears to be strongly bimodal with volatile-poor ( ρ ≥ 2.7 g cm −3 ) and volatile-rich ( ρ ≤ 2.2 g cm −3 ) bodies. Finally, our survey along with previous observations provides evidence in support of the possibility that some C-complex bodies could be intrinsically related to IDP-like P- and D-type asteroids, representing different layers of a same body (C: core; P/D: outer shell). We therefore propose that P/ D-types and some C-types may have the same origin in the primordial trans-Neptunian disk.« less
  2. The long noncoding RNA COLDAIR is necessary for the repression of a floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) during vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana. The repression of FLC is mediated by increased enrichment of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) and subsequent trimethylation of Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at FLC chromatin. In this study we found that the association of COLDAIR with chromatin occurs only at the FLC locus and that the central region of the COLDAIR transcript is critical for this interaction. A modular motif in COLDAIR is responsible for the association with PRC2 in vitro, and the mutations within the motif that reduced the association of COLDAIR with PRC2 resulted in vernalization insensitivity. The vernalization insensitivity caused by mutant COLDAIR was rescued by the ectopic expression of the wild-type COLDAIR. Our study reveals the molecular framework in which COLDAIR lncRNA mediates the PRC2-mediated repression of FLC during vernalization.
  3. A bstract A search is presented for a heavy W′ boson resonance decaying to a B or T vector-like quark and a t or a b quark, respectively. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb − 1 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Both decay channels result in a signature with a t quark, a Higgs or Z boson, and a b quark, each produced with a significant Lorentz boost. The all-hadronic decays of the Higgs or Z boson and of the t quark are selected using jet substructure techniques to reduce standard model backgrounds, resulting in a distinct three-jet W′ boson decay signature. No significant deviation in data with respect to the standard model background prediction is observed. Upper limits are set at 95% confidence level on the product of the W′ boson cross section and the final state branching fraction. A W′ boson with a mass below 3.1 TeV is excluded, given the benchmark model assumption of democratic branching fractions. In addition, limits are set based on generalizations of these assumptions. These are the most sensitive limits to datemore »for this final state.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
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  7. A bstract The associated production of a W and a Z boson is studied in final states with multiple leptons produced in proton-proton (pp) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV using 137 fb − 1 of data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. A measurement of the total inclusive production cross section yields σ tot (pp → WZ) = 50 . 6 ± 0 . 8 (stat) ± 1 . 5 (syst) ± 1 . 1 (lumi) ± 0 . 5 (theo) pb. Measurements of the fiducial and differential cross sections for several key observables are also performed in all the final-state lepton flavour and charge compositions with a total of three charged leptons, which can be electrons or muons. All results are compared with theoretical predictions computed up to next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics plus next-to-leading or- der in electroweak theory and for various sets of parton distribution functions. The results include direct measurements of the charge asymmetry and the W and Z vector boson polarization. The first observation of longitudinally polarized W bosons in WZ production is reported. Anomalous gauge couplings are searched for, leading to new constraints on beyond-the-standard-model contributions to the WZmore »triple gauge coupling.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023