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  1. Graphene layers placed on SrTiO3 single-crystal substrates, i.e., templates for remote epitaxy of functional oxide membranes, were investigated using temperature-dependent confocal Raman spectroscopy. This approach successfully resolved distinct Raman modes of graphene that are often untraceable in conventional measurements with non-confocal optics due to the strong Raman scattering background of SrTiO3. Information on defects and strain states was obtained for a few graphene/SrTiO3 samples that were synthesized by different techniques. This confocal Raman spectroscopic approach can shed light on the investigation of not only this graphene/SrTiO3 system but also various two-dimensional layered materials whose Raman modes interfere with their substrates.

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  2. Sosnovsky, S. ; Brusilovsky, P ; Baraniuk, R. G. ; Lan, A. S. (Ed.)
    As students read textbooks, they often highlight the material they deem to be most important. We analyze students’ highlights to predict their subsequent performance on quiz questions. Past research in this area has encoded highlights in terms of where the highlights appear in the stream of text—a positional representation. In this work, we construct a semantic representation based on a state-of-the-art deep-learning sentence embedding technique (SBERT) that captures the content-based similarity between quiz questions and highlighted (as well as non-highlighted) sentences in the text. We construct regression models that include latent variables for student skill level and question difficulty and augment the models with highlighting features. We find that highlighting features reliably boost model performance. We conduct experiments that validate models on held-out questions, students, and student-questions and find strong generalization for the latter two but not for held-out questions. Surprisingly, highlighting features improve models for questions at all levels of the Bloom taxonomy, from straightforward recall questions to inferential synthesis/evaluation/creation questions. 
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  3. We investigate whether student comprehension and knowledge retention can be predicted from textbook annotations, specifically the material that students choose to highlight. Using a digital open-access textbook platform, Openstax, students enrolled in Biology, Physics, and Sociology courses read sections of their introductory text as part of required coursework, optionally highlighted the text to flag key material, and then took brief quizzes as the end of each section. We find that when students choose to highlight, the specific pattern of highlights can explain about 13% of the variance in observed quiz scores. We explore many different representations of the pattern of highlights and discover that a low-dimensional logistic principal component based vector is most effective as input to a ridge regression model. Considering the many sources of uncontrolled variability affecting student performance, we are encouraged by the strong signal that highlights provide as to a student’s knowledge state. 
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  4. A bstract Charged-lepton-flavor-violation is predicted in several new physics scenarios. We update the analysis of τ lepton decays into a light charged lepton ( ℓ = e ± or μ ± ) and a vector meson ( V 0 = ρ 0 , ϕ , ω , K *0 , or $$ \overline{K} $$ K ¯ *0 ) using 980 fb − 1 of data collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB collider. No significant excess of such signal events is observed, and thus 90% credibility level upper limits are set on the τ → ℓV 0 branching fractions in the range of (1.7–4 . 3) × 10 − 8 . These limits are improved by 30% on average from the previous results. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
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