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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Consider a lattice of n sites arranged around a ring, with the $n$ sites occupied by particles of weights $\{1,2,\ldots ,n\}$; the possible arrangements of particles in sites thus correspond to the $n!$ permutations in $S_n$. The inhomogeneous totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (or TASEP) is a Markov chain on $S_n$, in which two adjacent particles of weights $i<j$ swap places at rate $x_i - y_{n+1-j}$ if the particle of weight $j$ is to the right of the particle of weight $i$. (Otherwise, nothing happens.) When $y_i=0$ for all $i$, the stationary distribution was conjecturally linked to Schubert polynomials [18], and explicit formulas for steady state probabilities were subsequently given in terms of multiline queues [4, 5]. In the case of general $y_i$, Cantini [7] showed that $n$ of the $n!$ states have probabilities proportional to double Schubert polynomials. In this paper, we introduce the class of evil-avoiding permutations, which are the permutations avoiding the patterns $2413, 4132, 4213,$ and $3214$. We show that there are $\frac {(2+\sqrt {2})^{n-1}+(2-\sqrt {2})^{n-1}}{2}$ evil-avoiding permutations in $S_n$, and for each evil-avoiding permutation $w$, we give an explicit formula for the steady state probability $\psi _w$ as a product of double Schubert polynomials.more »(Conjecturally, all other probabilities are proportional to a positive sum of at least two Schubert polynomials.) When $y_i=0$ for all $i$, we give multiline queue formulas for the $\textbf {z}$-deformed steady state probabilities and use this to prove the monomial factor conjecture from [18]. Finally, we show that the Schubert polynomials arising in our formulas are flagged Schur functions, and we give a bijection in this case between multiline queues and semistandard Young tableaux.

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  3. This paper proposes an online gain adaptation approach to enhance the robustness of whole-body control (WBC) framework for legged robots under unknown external force disturbances. Without properly accounting for external forces, the closed-loop control system incorporating WBC may become unstable, and therefore the desired task goals may not be achievable. To study the effects of external disturbances, we analyze the behavior of our current WBC framework via the use of both full-body and centroidal dynamics. In turn, we propose a way to adapt feedback gains for stabilizing the controlled system automatically. Based on model approximations and stability theory, we propose three conditions to ensure that the adjusted gains are suitable for stabilizing a robot under WBC. The proposed approach has four contributions. We make it possible to estimate the unknown disturbances without force/torque sensors. We then compute adaptive gains based on theoretic stability analysis incorporating the unknown forces at the joint actuation level. We demonstrate that the proposed method reduces task tracking errors under the effect of external forces on the robot. In addition, the proposed method is easy-to-use without further modifications of the controllers and task specifications. The resulting gain adaptation process is able to run in real-time. Finally,more »we verify the effectiveness of our method both in simulations and experiments using the bipedal robot Draco2 and the humanoid robot Valkyrie .« less