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  1. Curvatures in mode shapes and operating deflection shapes have been extensively studied for vibration-based structural damage identification in recent decades. Curvatures of mode shapes and operating deflection shapes have proved capable of localizing and manifesting local effects of damage on mode shapes and operating deflection shapes in forms of local anomalies. The damage can be inversely identified in the neighborhoods of the anomalies that exist in the curvatures. Meanwhile, propagating flexural waves have also been extensively studied for structural damage identification and proved to be effective, thanks to their high damage-sensitivity and long range of propagation. In this work, amore »baseline-free structural damage identification method is developed for beam-like structures using curvature waveforms of propagating flexural waves. A multi-resolution local-regression temporal-spatial curvature damage index (TSCDI) is defined in a pointwise manner. A two-dimensional auxiliary TSCDI and a one-dimensional auxiliary damage index are developed to further assist the identification. Two major advantages of the proposed method are: (1) curvature waveforms of propagating flexural waves have relatively high signal-to-noise ratios due to the use of a multi-resolution central finite difference scheme, so that the local effects of the damage can be manifested, and (2) the proposed method does not require quantitative knowledge of a pristine structure associated with a structure to be examined, such as its material properties, waveforms of propagating flexural waves and boundary conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations of the proposed method are conducted on damaged beam-like structures, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the results of the investigations.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2022
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  4. the Endodontidae are land snails endemic to Pacific islands, and the type genus Endodonta and its 11 species are endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. most members of the family, because of their ground dwelling habits, are vulnerable to introduced predators and most of the species in Hawaii are already extinct. Fossil specimens have been used to describe extinct species, but no living Endodonta species have been described in more than 100 years. Over the last 15 years, the most comprehensive search for land snails in Hawaii has been carried out, with more than 1000 sites surveyed to date. the onlymore »known living Endodonta species is from the island of Nihoa, discovered in 1923, but remaining undescribed until now. Here we finally give what we think is the last Endodonta species a name and describe it using an integrative taxonomic approach. In describing this last Endodonta species, our hope is to inspire increased awareness and appreciation that facilitates and motivates conservation for this species and all the other undiscovered and unnamed species threatened with extinction. unless protection of this species is implemented, it may be extinct within the next decade and we will lose the last of a lineage that existed for millions of years, and the stories it could tell.« less
  5. Abstract HESS J0632+057 belongs to a rare subclass of binary systems that emit gamma rays above 100 GeV. It stands out for its distinctive high-energy light curve, which features a sharp “primary” peak and broader “secondary” peak. We present the results of contemporaneous observations by NuSTAR and VERITAS during the secondary peak between 2019 December and 2020 February, when the orbital phase ( ϕ ) is between 0.55 and 0.75. NuSTAR detected X-ray spectral evolution, while VERITAS detected TeV emission. We fit a leptonic wind-collision model to the multiwavelength spectra data obtained over the four NuSTAR and VERITAS observations, constrainingmore »the pulsar spin-down luminosity and the magnetization parameter at the shock. Despite long-term monitoring of the source from 2019 October to 2020 March, the MDM observatory did not detect significant variation in H α and H β line equivalent widths, an expected signature of Be-disk interaction with the pulsar. Furthermore, fitting folded Swift-XRT light-curve data with an intrabinary shock model constrained the orbital parameters, suggesting two orbital phases (at ϕ D = 0.13 and 0.37), where the pulsar crosses the Be-disk, as well as phases for the periastron ( ϕ 0 = 0.30) and inferior conjunction ( ϕ IFC = 0.75). The broadband X-ray spectra with Swift-XRT and NuSTAR allowed us to measure a higher neutral hydrogen column density at one of the predicted disk-passing phases.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  6. Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) installed an ionospheric sounding radar system called Vertical Incidence Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR) at Jang Bogo Station (JBS) in 2015 in order to routinely monitor the state of the ionosphere in the auroral oval and polar cap regions. Since 2017, after two-year test operation, it has been continuously operated to produce various ionospheric parameters. In this article, we will introduce the characteristics of the JBS-VIPIR observations and possible applications of the data for the study on the polar ionosphere. The JBS-VIPIR utilizes a log periodic transmit antenna that transmits 0.5–25 MHz radio waves, and amore »receiving array of 8 dipole antennas. It is operated in the Dynasonde B-mode pulse scheme and utilizes the 3-D inversion program, called NeXtYZ, for the data acquisition and processing, instead of the conventional 1-D inversion procedure as used in the most of digisonde observations. The JBS-VIPIR outputs include the height profiles of the electron density, ionospheric tilts, and ion drifts with a 2-minute temporal resolution in the bottomside ionosphere. With these observations, possible research applications will be briefly described in combination with other observations for the aurora, the neutral atmosphere and the magnetosphere simultaneously conducted at JBS.« less
  7. Abstract Riveted connections are widely used to join basic components, such as beams and panels, for engineering structures. However, accurately modeling joined structures with riveted connections can be a challenging task. In this work, an accurate linear finite element (FE) modeling method is proposed for joined structures with riveted connections to estimate modal parameters in a predictive manner. The proposed FE modeling method consists of two steps. The first step is to develop nonlinear FE models that simulate riveting processes of solid rivets. The second step is to develop a linear FE model of a joined structure with the rivetedmore »connections simulated in the first step. The riveted connections are modeled using solid cylinders with dimensions and material properties obtained from the nonlinear FE models in the first step. An experimental investigation was conducted to study accuracy of the proposed linear FE modeling method. A joined structure with six riveted connections was prepared and tested. A linearity investigation was conducted to validate that the test structure could be considered to be linear. A linear FE model of the test structure was constructed using the proposed method. Natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the test structure were measured and compared with those from the linear FE model. The maximum difference of the natural frequencies was 1.63% for the first 23 out-of-plane elastic modes, and modal assurance criterion values for the corresponding mode shapes were all over 95%, which indicates high accuracy of the proposed linear FE modeling method.« less