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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) installed an ionospheric sounding radar system called Vertical Incidence Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR) at Jang Bogo Station (JBS) in 2015 in order to routinely monitor the state of the ionosphere in the auroral oval and polar cap regions. Since 2017, after two-year test operation, it has been continuously operated to produce various ionospheric parameters. In this article, we will introduce the characteristics of the JBS-VIPIR observations and possible applications of the data for the study on the polar ionosphere. The JBS-VIPIR utilizes a log periodic transmit antenna that transmits 0.5–25 MHz radio waves, and amore »receiving array of 8 dipole antennas. It is operated in the Dynasonde B-mode pulse scheme and utilizes the 3-D inversion program, called NeXtYZ, for the data acquisition and processing, instead of the conventional 1-D inversion procedure as used in the most of digisonde observations. The JBS-VIPIR outputs include the height profiles of the electron density, ionospheric tilts, and ion drifts with a 2-minute temporal resolution in the bottomside ionosphere. With these observations, possible research applications will be briefly described in combination with other observations for the aurora, the neutral atmosphere and the magnetosphere simultaneously conducted at JBS.« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  4. N,N-Diborylamines have emerged as promising reagents in organic synthesis; however, their efficient preparation and full synthetic utility have yet to be realized. To address both shortcomings, an effective catalyst for nitrile dihydroboration was sought. Heating CoCl2 in the presence of PyEtPDI afforded the six-coordinate Co(II) salt, [(PyEtPDI)CoCl][Cl]. Upon adding 2 equiv of NaEt3BH, hydride transfer to one chelate imine functionality was observed, resulting in the formation of (κ4-N,N,N,N-PyEtIPCHMeNEtPy)Co. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations revealed that this compound possesses a low-spin Co(II) ground state featuring antiferromagnetic coupling to a singly reduced imino(pyridine) moiety. Importantly, (κ4-N,N,N,N-PyEtIPCHMeNEtPy)Co was found tomore »catalyze the dihydroboration of nitriles using HBPin with turnover frequencies of up to 380 h–1 at ambient temperature. Stoichiometric addition experiments revealed that HBPin adds across the Co–Namide bond to generate a hydride intermediate that can react with additional HBPin or nitriles. Computational evaluation of the reaction coordinate revealed that the B–H addition and nitrile insertion steps occur on the antiferromagnetically coupled triplet spin manifold. Interestingly, formation of the borylimine intermediate was found to occur following BPin transfer from the borylated chelate arm to regenerate (κ4-N,N,N,N-PyEtIPCHMeNEtPy)Co. Borylimine reduction is in turn facile and follows the same ligand-assisted borylation pathway. The independent hydroboration of alkyl and aryl imines was also demonstrated at 25 °C. With a series of N,N-diborylamines in hand, their addition to carboxylic acids allowed for the direct synthesis of amides at 120 °C, without the need for an exogenous coupling reagent.« less
  5. A new reference-spur cancelation technique is presented for supply-regulated ring-oscillator-based integer-N phaselocked loops (PLLs). A passive RC filter is used to implement a feed-forward (FF) spur-coupling path to perform spur cancelation at the PLL control signal. The proposed technique achieves a simulated spur cancelation of about 22 dB at the first spur harmonic. The simulated postcancelation spur value is -79 dBc for an oscillator gain of 0.1 GHz/V and -46 dBc for an oscillator gain of 6 GHz/V. Spur cancelation is also robust against large process, voltage, and temperature variations in the gain and bandwidth of the FF path. Amore »1-GHz integerN PLL prototype in a 65-nm CMOS process has a measured cancelation of 19.5 and 13 dB at the first and the second spur harmonic, respectively, with 320 μW of total power consumption. The PLL prototype has an oscillator gain of 1.5 GHz/V, which results in a postcancelation spur of -53 dBc. The proposed zero-power technique is suitable for low-power PLLs as it achieves a large spur cancelation without requiring any additional power consumption or calibration.« less