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  1. Curvatures in mode shapes and operating deflection shapes have been extensively studied for vibration-based structural damage identification in recent decades. Curvatures of mode shapes and operating deflection shapes have proved capable of localizing and manifesting local effects of damage on mode shapes and operating deflection shapes in forms of local anomalies. The damage can be inversely identified in the neighborhoods of the anomalies that exist in the curvatures. Meanwhile, propagating flexural waves have also been extensively studied for structural damage identification and proved to be effective, thanks to their high damage-sensitivity and long range of propagation. In this work, amore »baseline-free structural damage identification method is developed for beam-like structures using curvature waveforms of propagating flexural waves. A multi-resolution local-regression temporal-spatial curvature damage index (TSCDI) is defined in a pointwise manner. A two-dimensional auxiliary TSCDI and a one-dimensional auxiliary damage index are developed to further assist the identification. Two major advantages of the proposed method are: (1) curvature waveforms of propagating flexural waves have relatively high signal-to-noise ratios due to the use of a multi-resolution central finite difference scheme, so that the local effects of the damage can be manifested, and (2) the proposed method does not require quantitative knowledge of a pristine structure associated with a structure to be examined, such as its material properties, waveforms of propagating flexural waves and boundary conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations of the proposed method are conducted on damaged beam-like structures, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the results of the investigations.« less
  2. Abstract Riveted connections are widely used to join basic components, such as beams and panels, for engineering structures. However, accurately modeling joined structures with riveted connections can be a challenging task. In this work, an accurate linear finite element (FE) modeling method is proposed for joined structures with riveted connections to estimate modal parameters in a predictive manner. The proposed FE modeling method consists of two steps. The first step is to develop nonlinear FE models that simulate riveting processes of solid rivets. The second step is to develop a linear FE model of a joined structure with the rivetedmore »connections simulated in the first step. The riveted connections are modeled using solid cylinders with dimensions and material properties obtained from the nonlinear FE models in the first step. An experimental investigation was conducted to study accuracy of the proposed linear FE modeling method. A joined structure with six riveted connections was prepared and tested. A linearity investigation was conducted to validate that the test structure could be considered to be linear. A linear FE model of the test structure was constructed using the proposed method. Natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the test structure were measured and compared with those from the linear FE model. The maximum difference of the natural frequencies was 1.63% for the first 23 out-of-plane elastic modes, and modal assurance criterion values for the corresponding mode shapes were all over 95%, which indicates high accuracy of the proposed linear FE modeling method.« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 7, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Abstract The multiplicity dependence of jet production in pp collisions at the centre-of-mass energy of $$\sqrt{s} = 13\ {\mathrm {TeV}}$$ s = 13 TeV is studied for the first time. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti- $$k_\mathrm {T}$$ k T algorithm with resolution parameters R varying from 0.2 to 0.7. The jets are measured in the pseudorapidity range $$|\eta _{\mathrm{jet}}|< 0.9-R$$ | η jet | < 0.9 - R and in the transverse momentum range $$5more »by the ALICE forward detector V0. The $$p_{\mathrm T}$$ p T differential cross section of charged-particle jets are compared to leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) calculations. It is found that the data are better described by the NLO calculation, although the NLO prediction overestimates the jet cross section below $$20\ {\mathrm {GeV}}/c$$ 20 GeV / c . The cross section ratios for different R are also measured and compared to model calculations. These measurements provide insights into the angular dependence of jet fragmentation. The jet yield increases with increasing self-normalised charged-particle multiplicity. This increase shows only a weak dependence on jet transverse momentum and resolution parameter at the highest multiplicity. While such behaviour is qualitatively described by the present version of PYTHIA, quantitative description may require implementing new mechanisms for multi-particle production in hadronic collisions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  6. A bstract A measurement of inclusive, prompt, and non-prompt J/ ψ production in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy $$ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV is presented. The inclusive J/ ψ mesons are reconstructed in the dielectron decay channel at midrapidity down to a transverse momentum p T = 0. The inclusive J/ ψ nuclear modification factor R pPb is calculated by comparing the new results in p-Pb collisions to a recently measured proton-proton reference at the same centre-of-mass energy. Non-prompt J/ ψ mesons, which originate from the decay of beauty hadrons, are separated frommore »promptly produced J/ ψ on a statistical basis for p T larger than 1.0 GeV/ c . These results are based on the data sample collected by the ALICE detector during the 2016 LHC p-Pb run, corresponding to an integrated luminosity $$ \mathcal{L} $$ L int = 292 ± 11 μ b − 1 , which is six times larger than the previous publications. The total uncertainty on the p T -integrated inclusive J/ ψ and non-prompt J/ ψ cross section are reduced by a factor 1.7 and 2.2, respectively. The measured cross sections and R pPb are compared with theoretical models that include various combinations of cold nuclear matter effects. From the non-prompt J/ ψ production cross section, the $$ \mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $$ b b ¯ production cross section at midrapidity, $$ {\mathrm{d}\sigma}_{\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}}} $$ d σ b b ¯ / d y , and the total cross section extrapolated over full phase space, $$ {\sigma}_{\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}}} $$ σ b b ¯ , are derived.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  7. Abstract In particle collider experiments, elementary particle interactions with large momentum transfer produce quarks and gluons (known as partons) whose evolution is governed by the strong force, as described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) 1 . These partons subsequently emit further partons in a process that can be described as a parton shower 2 , which culminates in the formation of detectable hadrons. Studying the pattern of the parton shower is one of the key experimental tools for testing QCD. This pattern is expected to depend on the mass of the initiating parton, through a phenomenon known asmore »the dead-cone effect, which predicts a suppression of the gluon spectrum emitted by a heavy quark of mass m Q and energy E , within a cone of angular size m Q / E around the emitter 3 . Previously, a direct observation of the dead-cone effect in QCD had not been possible, owing to the challenge of reconstructing the cascading quarks and gluons from the experimentally accessible hadrons. We report the direct observation of the QCD dead cone by using new iterative declustering techniques 4,5 to reconstruct the parton shower of charm quarks. This result confirms a fundamental feature of QCD. Furthermore, the measurement of a dead-cone angle constitutes a direct experimental observation of the non-zero mass of the charm quark, which is a fundamental constant in the standard model of particle physics.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 19, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023