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Creators/Authors contains: "Kim, K."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 5, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  3. OBJECTIVES: Prediction and determination of drug efficacy for radiographic progression is limited by the heterogeneity inherent in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). We investigated whether unbiased clustering analysis of phenotypic data can lead to coherent subgroups of axSpA patients with a distinct risk of radiographic progression. METHODS: A group of 412 patients with axSpA was clustered in an unbiased way using a agglomerative hierarchical clustering method, based on their phenotype mapping. We used a generalised linear model, naïve Bayes, Decision Trees, K-Nearest-Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines to construct a consensus classification method. Radiographic progression over 2 years was assessed using the modifiedmore »Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS). RESULTS: axSpA patients were classified into three distinct subgroups with distinct clinical characteristics. Sex, smoking, HLA-B27, baseline mSASSS, uveitis, and peripheral arthritis were the key features that were found to stratifying the phenogroups. The three phenogroups showed distinct differences in radiographic progression rate (p<0.05) and the proportion of progressors (p<0.001). Phenogroup 2, consisting of male smokers, had the worst radiographic progression, while phenogroup 3, exclusively suffering from uveitis, showed the least radiographic progression. The axSpA phenogroup classification, including its ability to stratify risk, was successfully replicated in an independent validation group. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotype mapping results in a clinically relevant classification of axSpA that is applicable for risk stratification. Novel coupling between phenotypic features and radiographic progression can provide a glimpse into the mechanisms underlying divergent and shared features of axSpA.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 27, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  7. Abstract We present the results of an analysis of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) observations of the full 2500 deg 2 South Pole Telescope (SPT)-Sunyaev–Zel’dovich cluster sample. We describe a process for identifying active galactic nuclei (AGN) in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) based on WISE mid-IR color and redshift. Applying this technique to the BCGs of the SPT-SZ sample, we calculate the AGN-hosting BCG fraction, which is defined as the fraction of BCGs hosting bright central AGNs over all possible BCGs. Assuming an evolving single-burst stellar population model, we find statistically significant evidence (>99.9%) for a mid-IR excess at highmore »redshift compared to low redshift, suggesting that the fraction of AGN-hosting BCGs increases with redshift over the range of 0 < z < 1.3. The best-fit redshift trend of the AGN-hosting BCG fraction has the form (1 + z ) 4.1±1.0 . These results are consistent with previous studies in galaxy clusters as well as as in field galaxies. One way to explain this result is that member galaxies at high redshift tend to have more cold gas. While BCGs in nearby galaxy clusters grow mostly by dry mergers with cluster members, leading to no increase in AGN activity, BCGs at high redshift could primarily merge with gas-rich satellites, providing fuel for feeding AGNs. If this observed increase in AGN activity is linked to gas-rich mergers rather than ICM cooling, we would expect to see an increase in scatter in the P cav versus L cool relation at z > 1. Last, this work confirms that the runaway cooling phase, as predicted by the classical cooling-flow model, in the Phoenix cluster is extremely rare and most BCGs have low (relative to Eddington) black hole accretion rates.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 3, 2023
  8. Diatoms are major contributors to global primary production and their populations in the modern oceans are affected by availability of iron, nitrogen, phosphate, silica, and other trace metals, vitamins, and infochemicals. However, little is known about the role of phosphorylation in diatoms and its role in regulation and signaling. We report a total of 2759 phosphorylation sites on 1502 proteins detected in Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Conditionally phosphorylated peptides were detected at low iron (n = 108), during the diel cycle (n = 149), and due to nitrogen availability (n = 137). Through a multi-omic comparison of transcript, protein, phosphorylation, and proteinmore »homology, we identify numerous proteins and key cellular processes that are likely under control of phospho-regulation. We show that phosphorylation regulates: (1) carbon retrenchment and reallocation during growth under low iron, (2) carbon flux towards lipid biosynthesis after the lights turn on, (3) coordination of transcription and translation over the diel cycle and (4) in response to nitrogen depletion. We also uncover phosphorylation sites for proteins that play major roles in diatom Fe sensing and utilization, including flavodoxin and phytotransferrin (ISIP2A), as well as identify phospho-regulated stress proteins and kinases. These findings provide much needed insight into the roles of protein phosphorylation in diel cycling and nutrient sensing in diatoms.« less