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  1. Abstract

    Numerous biological systems contain vesicle‐like biomolecular compartments without membranes, which contribute to diverse functions including gene regulation, stress response, signaling, and skin barrier formation. Coacervation, as a form of liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS), is recognized as a representative precursor to the formation and assembly of membrane‐less vesicle‐like structures, although their formation mechanism remains unclear. In this study, a coacervation‐driven membrane‐less vesicle‐like structure is constructed using two proteins, GG1234 (an anionic intrinsically disordered protein) and bhBMP‐2 (a bioengineered human bone morphogenetic protein 2). GG1234 formed both simple coacervates by itself and complex coacervates with the relatively cationic bhBMP‐2 under acidic conditions. Upon addition of dissolved bhBMP‐2 to the simple coacervates of GG1234, a phase transition from spherical simple coacervates to vesicular condensates occurred via the interactions between GG1234 and bhBMP‐2 on the surface of the highly viscoelastic GG1234 simple coacervates. Furthermore, the shell structure in the outer region of the GG1234/bhBMP‐2 vesicular condensates exhibited gel‐like properties, leading to the formation of multiphasic vesicle‐like compartments. A potential mechanism is proposed for the formation of the membrane‐less GG1234/bhBMP‐2 vesicle‐like compartments. This study provides a dynamic process underlying the formation of biomolecular multiphasic condensates, thereby enhancing the understanding of these biomolecular structures.

     
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  2. Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional, systemic, synovial and articular changes after intra-articular administration of a synthetic lubricin within healthy canine stifles. Study Design A prospective randomized blinded placebo-controlled study composed of 10 dogs equally divided into either a treatment group (intra-articular synthetic lubricin injection, n = 5) or control group (saline, n = 5). Clinical (orthopaedic examination, gait observation, gait analysis), biochemical (complete blood count and biochemistry profile) and local tissue outcomes (joint fluid analysis, joint capsule and articular cartilage histopathology) were evaluated over a time period of 3 months. Results No significant differences between the treatment group and control group were identified with regard to baseline patient parameters. No clinically significant orthopaedic examination abnormalities, gait abnormalities, biochemical alterations, joint fluid alterations or histopathological alterations were identified over the course of the study. Conclusion The synthetic lubricin studied herein is both biocompatible and safe for a single administration within the canine stifle joint. Further research is necessary to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the synthetic lubricin in canine osteoarthritic joints. 
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