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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 28, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  3. Numerous field observations of tsunami-induced eddies in ports and harbours have been reported for recent tsunami events. We examine the evolution of a turbulent shallow-water monopolar vortex generated by a long wave through a series of large-scale experiments in a rectangular wave basin. A leading-elevation asymmetric wave is guided through a narrow channel to form a flow separation region on the lee side of a straight vertical breakwater, which coupled with the transient flow leads to the formation of a monopolar turbulent coherent structure (TCS). The vortex flow after detachment from the trailing jet is fully turbulent ( $Re_h \simmore »O(10^{4}\text {--}10^{5}$ )) for the remainder of the experimental duration. The free surface velocity field was extracted through particle tracking velocimetry over several experimental trials. The first-order model proposed by Seol & Jirka ( J. Fluid Mech. , vol. 665, 2010, pp. 274–299) to predict the decay and spatial growth of shallow-water vortices fits the experimental data well. Bottom friction is predicted to induce a $t^{-1}$ azimuthal velocity decay and turbulent viscous diffusion results in a $\sqrt {t}$ bulk vortex radial growth, where $t$ represents time. The azimuthal velocity, vorticity and free surface elevation profiles are well described through an idealised geophysical vortex. Kinematic free surface boundary conditions predict weak upwelling in the TCS-centre, followed by a zone of downwelling in a recirculation pattern along the water column. The vertical confinement of the flow is quantified through the ratio of kinetic energy contained in the secondary and primary surface velocity fields and a transition point towards a quasi-two-dimensional flow is identified.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  5. Abstract

    We report the identification of metastable isomeric states of$$^{228}$$228Ac at 6.28 keV, 6.67 keV and 20.19 keV, with lifetimes of an order of 100 ns. These states are produced by the$$\beta $$β-decay of$$^{228}$$228Ra, a component of the$$^{232}$$232Th decay chain, with$$\beta $$βQ-values of 39.52 keV, 39.13 keV and 25.61 keV, respectively. Due to the low Q-value of$$^{228}$$228Ra as well as the relative abundance of$$^{232}$$232Th and their progeny in low background experiments, these observations potentially impact the low-energy background modeling of dark matter search experiments.

  6. Existing three-dimensional (3D) culture techniques are limited by trade-offs between throughput, capacity for high-resolution imaging in living state, and geometric control. Here, we introduce a modular microscale hanging drop culture where simple design elements allow high replicates for drug screening, direct on-chip real-time or high-resolution confocal microscopy, and geometric control in 3D. Thousands of spheroids can be formed on our microchip in a single step and without any selective pressure from specific matrices. Microchip cultures from human LN229 glioblastoma and patient-derived mouse xenograft cells retained genomic alterations of originating tumors based on mate pair sequencing. We measured response to drugsmore »over time with real-time microscopy on-chip. Last, by engineering droplets to form predetermined geometric shapes, we were able to manipulate the geometry of cultured cell masses. These outcomes can enable broad applications in advancing personalized medicine for cancer and drug discovery, tissue engineering, and stem cell research.« less
  7. In this paper, we discuss the outcomes of the follow-up campaign of SN 2018ijp, discovered as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility survey for optical transients. Its first spectrum shows similarities to broad-lined Type Ic supernovae around maximum light, whereas later spectra display strong signatures of interaction between rapidly expanding ejecta and a dense H-rich circumstellar medium, coinciding with a second peak in the photometric evolution of the transient. This evolution, along with the results of modeling of the first light-curve peak, suggests a scenario where a stripped star exploded within a dense circumstellar medium. The two main phases inmore »the evolution of the transient could be interpreted as a first phase dominated by radioactive decays, and a later interaction-dominated phase where the ejecta collide with a pre-existing shell. We therefore discuss SN 2018jp within the context of a massive star depleted of its outer layers exploding within a dense H-rich circumstellar medium.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2022