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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  2. Gas hydrates (GHs) in water close to freezing temperatures can be stabilised via the formation of ice layers. In a recent work [Boström et al. , Astron. Astrophys. , A54 , 650, 2021], it was found that a surface region with partial gas dilution could be essential for obtaining nano- to micron-sized anomalously stabilizing ice layers. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the Casimir–Lifshitz free energy in multi-layer systems could induce thinner, but more stable, ice layers in cavities than those found for gas hydrates in a large reservoir of cold water. The thickness and stability of such ice layers in a pore filled with cold water could influence the leakage of gas molecules. Additional contributions, e.g. from salt-induced stresses, can also be of importance, and are briefly discussed.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024

    The origin of the radio emission in radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) remains unclear. Radio emission may be produced by a scaled-down version of the relativistic jets observed in radio-loud (RL) AGN, an AGN-driven wind, the accretion disc corona, AGN photon-ionization of ambient gas (free–free emission), or star formation (SF). Here, we report a pilot study, part of a radio survey (‘PG-RQS’) aiming at exploring the spectral distributions of the 71 Palomar–Green (PG) RQQs: high angular resolution observations (∼50 mas) at 45 GHz (7 mm) with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 15 sources. Sub-mJy radio cores are detected in 13 sources on a typical scale of ∼100 pc, which excludes significant contribution from galaxy-scale SF. For 9 sources the 45-GHz luminosity is above the lower frequency (∼1–10 GHz) spectral extrapolation, indicating the emergence of an additional flatter-spectrum compact component at high frequencies. The X-ray luminosity and black hole (BH) mass, correlate more tightly with the 45-GHz luminosity than the 5-GHz. The 45 GHz-based radio-loudness increases with decreasing Eddington ratio and increasing BH mass MBH. These results suggest that the 45-GHz emission from PG RQQs nuclei originates from the innermost region of the core, probably from the accretion disc corona. Increasing contributions to 45-GHzmore »emission from a jet at higher MBH and lower Eddington ratios and from a disc wind at large Eddington ratios are still consistent with our results. Future full radio spectral coverage of the sample will help us investigating the different physical mechanisms in place in RQQ cores.

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  4. It has been recognized for some time that, even for perfect conductors, the interaction Casimir entropy, due to quantum/thermal fluctuations, can be negative. This result was not considered problematic because it was thought that the self-entropies of the bodies would cancel this negative interaction entropy, yielding a total entropy that was positive. In fact, this cancellation seems not to occur. The positive self-entropy of a perfectly conducting sphere does indeed just cancel the negative interaction entropy of a system consisting of a perfectly conducting sphere and plate, but a model with weaker coupling in general possesses a regime where negative self-entropy appears. The physical meaning of this surprising result remains obscure. In this paper, we re-examine these issues, using improved physical and mathematical techniques, partly based on the Abel–Plana formula, and present numerical results for arbitrary temperatures and couplings, which exhibit the same remarkable features.