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  1. Abstract We place empirical constraints on the yields from zero- and low-metallicity core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) using abundances measured in very metal-poor (VMP; [Fe/H] ≤ −2) damped Ly α absorbers (DLAs). For some abundance ratios ([N,Al,S/Fe]), VMP DLAs constrain the metal yields of the first SNe more reliably than VMP stars. We compile a large sample of high-S/N VMP DLAs from over 30 yr of literature, most with high-resolution spectral measurements. We infer the initial-mass-function-averaged CCSNe yield from the median values from the DLA abundance ratios of C, N, O, Al, Si, S, and Fe (over Fe and O). We assume that the DLAs are metal-poor enough that they represent galaxies in their earliest stages of evolution, when CCSNe are the only nucleosynthetic sources of the metals we analyze. We compare five sets of zero- and low-metallicity theoretical yields to the empirical yields derived in this work. We find that the five models agree with the DLA yields for ratios containing Si and S. Only one model (Heger & Woosley 2010, hereafter HW10) reproduced the DLA values for N, and one other model (Limongi & Chieffi 2018, hereafter LC18) reproduced [N/O]. We found little change in the theoretical yields with themore »adoption of an SN explosion landscape (where certain progenitor masses collapse into black holes, contributing no yields) onto HW10, but fixing explosion energy to progenitor mass results in wide disagreements between the predictions and DLA abundances. We investigate the adoption of a simple, observationally motivated initial distribution of rotational velocities for LC18 and find a slight improvement.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We present new MMT/Hectochelle spectroscopic measurements for 257 stars observed along the line of sight to the ultrafaint dwarf galaxy Triangulum II (Tri II). Combining results from previous Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy, we obtain a sample that includes 16 likely members of Tri II, with up to 10 independent redshift measurements per star. To this multi-epoch kinematic data set, we apply methodology that we develop in order to infer binary orbital parameters from sparsely sampled radial velocity curves with as few as two epochs. For a previously identified (spatially unresolved) binary system in Tri II, we infer an orbital solution with period $296.0_{-3.3}^{+3.8} \rm ~ d$, semimajor axis $1.12^{+0.41}_{-0.24}\rm ~au$, and systemic velocity $-380.0 \pm 1.7 \rm ~km ~s^{-1}$ that we then use in the analysis of Tri II’s internal kinematics. Despite this improvement in the modelling of binary star systems, the current data remain insufficient to resolve the velocity dispersion of Tri II. We instead find a 95 per cent confidence upper limit of $\sigma _{v} \lesssim 3.4 \rm ~km~s^{-1}$.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 14, 2023
  3. Abstract

    We demonstrate that using up to seven stellar abundance ratios can place observational constraints on the star formation histories (SFHs) of Local Group dSphs, using Sculptor dSph as a test case. We use a one-zone chemical evolution model to fit the overall abundance patterns ofαelements (which probe the core-collapse supernovae that occur shortly after star formation),s-process elements (which probe AGB nucleosynthesis at intermediate delay times), and iron-peak elements (which probe delayed Type Ia supernovae). Our best-fit model indicates that Sculptor dSph has an ancient SFH, consistent with previous estimates from deep photometry. However, we derive a total star formation duration of ∼0.9 Gyr, which is shorter than photometrically derived SFHs. We explore the effect of various model assumptions on our measurement and find that modifications to these assumptions still produce relatively short SFHs of duration ≲1.4 Gyr. Our model is also able to compare sets of predicted nucleosynthetic yields for supernovae and AGB stars, and can provide insight into the nucleosynthesis of individual elements in Sculptor dSph. We find that observed [Mn/Fe] and [Ni/Fe] trends are most consistent with sub-MChType Ia supernova models, and that a combination of “prompt” (delay times similar to core-collapse supernovae) and “delayed” (minimum delaymore »times ≳50 Myr)r-process events may be required to reproduce observed [Ba/Mg] and [Eu/Mg] trends.

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  4. Abstract

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry of the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies Pegasus III (Peg III) and Pisces II (Psc II), two of the most distant satellites in the halo of the Milky Way (MW). We measure the structure of both galaxies, derive mass-to-light ratios with newly determined absolute magnitudes, and compare our findings to expectations from UFD-mass simulations. For Peg III, we find an elliptical half-light radius ofah=1.′880.33+0.42(11830+31pc) andMV=4.170.22+0.19;for Psc II, we measureah=1.′310.09+0.10(69 ± 8 pc) andMV=4.280.16+0.19. We do not find any morphological features that indicate a significant interaction between the two has occurred, despite their close separation of only ∼40 kpc. Using proper motions (PMs) from Gaia early Data Release 3, we investigate the possibility of any past association by integrating orbits for the two UFDs in an MW-only and a combined MW and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) potential. We find that including the gravitational influence of the LMC is crucial, even for these outer-halo satellites, and that a possible orbital history exists where Peg III and Psc II experienced a close (∼10–20 kpc) passage about each other just overmore »∼1 Gyr ago, followed by a collective passage around the LMC (∼30–60 kpc) just under ∼1 Gyr ago. Considering the large uncertainties on the PMs and the restrictive priors imposed to derive them, improved PM measurements for Peg III and Psc II will be necessary to clarify their relationship. This would add to the rare findings of confirmed pairs of satellites within the Local Group.

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  5. Abstract

    We analyze existing measurements of [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] for individual red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Giant Stellar Stream (GSS) of M31 to determine whether spatial abundance gradients are present. These measurements were obtained from low- (R∼ 3000) and moderate- (R∼ 6000) resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy using spectral synthesis techniques as part of the Elemental Abundances in M31 survey. From a sample of 62 RGB stars spanning the GSS at 17, 22, and 33 projected kpc, we measure a [Fe/H] gradient of −0.018 ± 0.003 dex kpc−1and negligible [α/Fe] gradient with M31-centric radius. We investigate GSS abundance patterns in the outer halo using additional [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] measurements for six RGB stars located along the stream at 45 and 58 projected kpc. These abundances provide tentative evidence that the trends in [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] beyond 40 kpc in the GSS are consistent with those within 33 kpc. We also compare the GSS abundances to 65 RGB stars located along the possibly related Southeast (SE) shelf substructure at 12 and 18 projected kpc. The abundances of the GSS and SE shelf are consistent, supporting a common origin hypothesis, although this interpretation may be complicated by the presence of [Fe/H] gradientsmore »in the GSS. We discuss the abundance patterns in the context of photometric studies from the literature and explore implications for the properties of the GSS progenitor, suggesting that the high 〈[α/Fe]〉 of the GSS (+0.40 ± 0.05 dex) favors a major merger scenario for its formation.

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  6. Abstract

    We present measurements of [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] for 128 individual red giant branch stars (RGB) in the stellar halo of M31, including its Giant Stellar Stream (GSS), obtained using spectral synthesis of low- and medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy (and 6000, respectively). We observed four fields in M31's stellar halo (at projected radii of 9, 18, 23, and 31 kpc), as well as two fields in the GSS (at 33 kpc). In combination with existing literature measurements, we have increased the sample size of [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] measurements from 101 to a total of 229 individual M31 RGB stars. From this sample, we investigate the chemical abundance properties of M31's inner halo, findingand. Between 8 and 34 kpc, the inner halo has a steep [Fe/H] gradient (−0.025 ± 0.002 dex kpc−1) and negligible [α/Fe] gradient, where substructure in the inner halo is systematically more metal-rich than the smooth component of the halo at a given projected distance. Although the chemical abundances of the inner stellar halo are largely inconsistent with that of present-day dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies of M31, we identified 22 RGB stars kinematically associated with the smooth component of the stellar halomore »that have chemical abundance patterns similar to M31 dSphs. We discuss formation scenarios for M31's halo, concluding that these dSph-like stars may have been accreted from galaxies of similar stellar mass and star formation history, or of higher stellar mass and similar star formation efficiency.

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