skip to main content


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Klein, Richard I."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. ABSTRACT

    We use the polaris radiative transfer code to produce simulated circular polarization Zeeman emission maps of the cyanide (CN) J = 1–0 molecular line transition for two types of protostellar envelope magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Our first model is a low-mass disc envelope system (box length L = 200 au), and our second model is the envelope of a massive protostar (L = 104 au) with a protostellar wind and a CN-enhanced outflow shell. We compute the velocity-integrated Stokes I and V, as well as the implied V/I polarization percentage, for each detector pixel location in our simulated emission maps. Our results show that both types of protostellar environments are in principle accessible with current circular polarization instruments, with each containing swaths of envelope area that yield percentage polarizations that exceed the 1.8 per cent nominal sensitivity limit for circular polarization experiments with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. In both systems, high-polarization (≳1.8 per cent) pixels tend to lie at an intermediate distance away from the central star and where the line-centre opacity of the CN emission is moderately optically thin (τLC ∼ 0.1–1). Furthermore, our computed V/I values scale roughly with the density-weighted mean line-of-sight magnetic field strength, indicating that Zeeman observations can effectively diagnose the strength of envelope-scale magnetic fields. We also find that pixels with large V/I are preferentially co-located where the absolute value of the velocity-integrated V is also large, suggesting that locations with favourable percentage polarization are also favourable in terms of raw signal.

     
    more » « less
  2. ABSTRACT

    We present the stability analysis of two regions, OMC-3 and OMC-4, in the massive and long molecular cloud complex of Orion A. We obtained 214 $\mu$m HAWC + /SOFIA polarization data, and we make use of archival data for the column density and C18O (1–0) emission line. We find clear depolarization in both observed regions and that the polarization fraction is anticorrelated with the column density and the polarization-angle dispersion function. We find that the filamentary cloud and dense clumps in OMC-3 are magnetically supercritical and strongly subvirial. This region should be in the gravitational collapse phase and is consistent with many young stellar objects (YSOs) forming in the region. Our histogram of relative orientation (HRO) analysis shows that the magnetic field is dynamically sub-dominant in the dense gas structures of OMC-3. We present the first polarization map of OMC-4. We find that the observed region is generally magnetically subcritical except for an elongated dense core, which could be a result of projection effect of a filamentary structure aligned close to the line of sight. The relative large velocity dispersion and the unusual positive shape parameters at high column densities in the HROs analysis suggest that our viewing angle may be close to axes of filamentary substructures in OMC-4. The dominating strong magnetic field in OMC-4 is unfavourable for star formation and is consistent with much fewer YSOs than in OMC-3.

     
    more » « less
  3. ABSTRACT Despite the rich observational results on interstellar magnetic fields in star-forming regions, it is still unclear how dynamically significant the magnetic fields are at varying physical scales, because direct measurement of the field strength is observationally difficult. The Davis–Chandrasekhar–Fermi (DCF) method has been the most commonly used method to estimate the magnetic field strength from polarization data. It is based on the assumption that gas turbulent motion is the driving source of field distortion via linear Alfvén waves. In this work, using MHD simulations of star-forming clouds, we test the validity of the assumption underlying the DCF method by examining its accuracy in the real 3D space. Our results suggest that the DCF relation between turbulent kinetic energy and magnetic energy fluctuation should be treated as a statistical result instead of a local property. We then develop and investigate several modifications to the original DCF method using synthetic observations, and propose new recipes to improve the accuracy of DCF-derived magnetic field strength. We further note that the biggest uncertainty in the DCF analysis may come from the linewidth measurement instead of the polarization observation, especially since the line-of-sight gas velocity can be used to estimate the gas volume density, another critical parameter in the DCF method. 
    more » « less
  4. ABSTRACT

    Beginning with cosmological initial conditions at z = 100, we simulate the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of Population III stars and compare our results with the predictions of Paper I. We use gadget-2 to follow the evolution of the system while the field is weak. We introduce a new method for treating kinematic fields by tracking the evolution of the deformation tensor. The growth rate in this stage of the simulation is lower than expected for diffuse astrophysical plasmas, which have a very low resistivity (high magnetic Prandtl number); we attribute this to the large numerical resistivity in simulations, corresponding to a magnetic Prandtl number of order unity. When the magnetic field begins to be dynamically significant in the core of the minihalo at z = 27, we map it on to a uniform grid and follow the evolution in an adaptive mesh refinement, MHD simulation in orion2. The non-linear evolution of the field in the orion2 simulation violates flux-freezing and is consistent with the theory proposed by Xu & Lazarian. The fields approach equipartition with kinetic energy at densities ∼1010–1012 cm−3. When the same calculation is carried out in orion2 with no magnetic fields, several protostars form, ranging in mass from ∼1 to 30 M⊙; with magnetic fields, only a single ∼30 M⊙ protostar forms by the end of the simulation. Magnetic fields thus suppress the formation of low-mass Pop III stars, yielding a top-heavy Pop III initial mass function and contributing to the absence of observed Pop III stars.

     
    more » « less
  5. ABSTRACT

    Optical and infrared polarization mapping and recent Planck observations of the filametary cloud L1495 in Taurus show that the large-scale magnetic field is approximately perpendicular to the long axis of the cloud. We use the HAWC + polarimeter on SOFIA to probe the complex magnetic field in the B211 part of the cloud. Our results reveal a dispersion of polarization angles of 36°, about five times that measured on a larger scale by Planck. Applying the Davis–Chandrasekhar–Fermi (DCF) method with velocity information obtained from Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique 30 m C18O(1-0) observations, we find two distinct sub-regions with magnetic field strengths differing by more than a factor 3. The quieter sub-region is magnetically critical and sub-Alfv$\acute{\rm e}$nic; the field is comparable to the average field measured in molecular clumps based on Zeeman observations. The more chaotic, super-Alfv$\acute{\rm e}$nic sub-region shows at least three velocity components, indicating interaction among multiple substructures. Its field is much less than the average Zeeman field in molecular clumps, suggesting that the DCF value of the field there may be an underestimate. Numerical simulation of filamentary cloud formation shows that filamentary substructures can strongly perturb the magnetic field. DCF and true field values in the simulation are compared. Pre-stellar cores are observed in B211 and are seen in our simulation. The appendices give a derivation of the standard DCF method that allows for a dispersion in polarization angles that is not small, present an alternate derivation of the structure function version of the DCF method, and treat fragmentation of filaments.

     
    more » « less