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Creators/Authors contains: "Klinck, John M."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Rising water temperatures along the northeastern U.S. continental shelf have resulted in an offshore range shift of the Atlantic surfclamSpisula solidissimato waters still occupied by ocean quahogsArctica islandica. Fishers presently are prohibited from landing both Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs in the same catch, thus limiting fishing to locations where the target species can be sorted on deck. Wind energy development on and around the fishing grounds will further restrict the fishery. A spatially explicit model of the Atlantic surfclam fishery (Spatially Explicit Fishery Economics Simulator) has the ability to simulate the consequences of fishery displacement due to wind energy development in combination with fishery and stock dynamics related to the species' overlap with ocean quahogs. Five sets of simulations were run to determine the effect of varying degrees of species overlap due to Atlantic surfclam range shifts in conjunction with fishing constraints due to wind farm development. Simulations tracked changes in relative stock status, fishery performance, and the economic consequences for the fishery. Compared to a business‐as‐usual scenario, all scenarios with less‐restrictive fishing penalties due to species overlap exhibited higher raw catch numbers but also greater reductions in revenue and increases in cost after the implementation of wind farms. This analysis serves to demonstrate the response of the Atlantic surfclam fishery to combined pressures from competing ocean uses and climate change and emphasizes the potential for economic disruption of fisheries as climate change interacts with the evolution of ocean management on the continental shelf.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    The Atlantic surfclamSpisula solidissimafishery, which spans the U.S. Northeast continental shelf, is among the most exposed to offshore wind energy development impacts because of the overlap of fishing grounds with wind energy lease areas, the hydraulic dredges used by the fishing vessels, and the location of vessel home ports relative to the fishing grounds. The Atlantic surfclam federal assessment survey is conducted using a commercial fishing vessel in locations that overlap with the offshore wind energy development. Once wind energy turbines, cables, and scour protection are installed, survey operations within wind energy lease areas may be curtailed or eliminated due to limits on vessel access, safety requirements, and assessment survey protocols. The impact of excluding the federal assessment survey from wind energy lease areas was investigated using a spatially explicit, agent‐based modeling framework that integrates Atlantic surfclam stock biology, fishery captain and fleet behavior, and federal assessment survey and management decisions. Simulations were designed to compare assessment estimates of spawning stock biomass (SSB) and fishing mortality (F) for scenarios that excluded the survey from (1) wind energy lease areas or (2) wind energy lease areas and potential wind energy lease areas (“call areas”). For the most restricted scenario, the simulated stock assessment estimated 17% lower SSB relative to an unrestricted survey, placing it below the SSB target. The simulatedFincreased by 7% but was still less than the acceptedFthreshold. Changes in biological reference points were driven by the inability to access the Atlantic surfclam biomass within the wind energy lease areas. Deviations in reference points reflected the proportion of the population excluded from the survey. Excluding the Atlantic surfclam assessment surveys from the regions designated for offshore wind development can alter long‐term stock assessments by increasing uncertainty in metrics that are used to set fishing quotas.

     
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  5. Abstract

    The continental shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is characterized by strong along‐shore hydrographic gradients resulting from the distinct influences of the warm Bellingshausen Sea to the south and the cold Weddell Sea water flooding Bransfield Strait to the north. These gradients modulate the spatial structure of glacier retreat and are correlated with other physical and biochemical variability along the shelf, but their structure and dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, the magnitude, spatial structure, seasonal‐to‐interannual variability, and driving mechanisms of along‐shore exchange are investigated using the output of a high‐resolution numerical model and with hydrographic data collected in Palmer Deep. The analyses reveal a pronounced seasonal cycle of along‐shore transport, with a net flux (7.0 × 105 m3/s) of cold water toward the central WAP (cWAP) in winter, which reverses in summer with a net flow (5.2 × 105 m3/s) of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) and modified CDW (mCDW) toward Bransfield Strait. Significant interannual variability is found as the pathway of a coastal current transporting Weddell‐sourced water along the WAP shelf is modulated by wind forcing. When the Southern Annual Mode (SAM) is positive during winter, stronger upwelling‐favorable winds dominate in Bransfield Strait, leading to offshore advection of the Weddell‐sourced water. Negative SAM leads to weaker upwelling‐ or downwelling‐favorable winds and enhanced flooding of the cWAP with cold water from Bransfield Strait. This process can result in significant (0.5°C below 200 m) cooling of the continental shelf around Palmer Station, highlighting that along‐shore exchange is critical in modulating the hydrographic properties along the WAP.

     
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  6. Abstract

    The Southern Ocean is characterized by high eddy activity and high particulate organic carbon (POC) content during summer, especially near Antarctica. Because it encircles the globe, it provides a pathway for inter‐basin exchange. Here, we use satellite observations and a high‐resolution ocean model to quantify offshore transport of coastal water rich in POC off the West Antarctic Peninsula. We show that nonlinear cyclonic eddies generated near the coast often trap coastal water rich in POC during formation before propagating offshore. As a result, cyclones found offshore that were generated near the coast have on average higher POC content in their interior than cyclones generated locally offshore. This results in a POC enrichment of 5.7 ± 3.0 Gg C year−1in offshore waters off the Peninsula. Actual POC enrichment is likely substantially larger, since about half of the volume transport of coastal water is driven by small eddies that are missed by observations.

     
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  7. Abstract

    Changes in the rate of ocean‐driven basal melting of Antarctica's ice shelves can alter the rate at which the grounded ice sheet loses mass and contributes to sea level change. Melt rates depend on the inflow of ocean heat, which occurs through steady circulation and eddy fluxes. Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of eddy fluxes for ice shelves affected by relatively warm intrusions of Circumpolar Deep Water. However, ice shelves on cold water continental shelves primarily melt from dense shelf water near the grounding line and from light surface water at the ice shelf front. Eddy effects on basal melt of these ice shelves have not been studied. We investigate where and when a regional ocean model of the Ross Sea resolves eddies and determine the effect of eddy processes on basal melt. The size of the eddies formed depends on water column stratification and latitude. We use simulations at horizontal grid resolutions of 5 and 1.5 km and, in the 1.5‐km model, vary the degree of topography smoothing. The higher‐resolution models generate about 2–2.5 times as many eddies as the low‐resolution model. In all simulations, eddies cross the ice shelf front in both directions. However, there is no significant change in basal melt between low‐ and high‐resolution simulations. We conclude that higher‐resolution models (<1 km) are required to better represent eddies in the Ross Sea but hypothesize that basal melt of the Ross Ice Shelf is relatively insensitive to our ability to fully resolve the eddy field.

     
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