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  1. This work reports the realization of Gd 3+ persistent luminescence in the narrowband ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB; 310–313 nm) through persistent energy transfer from a sensitizer of Pr 3+ , Pb 2+ or Bi 3+ . We propose a general design concept to develop Gd 3+ -activated NB-UVB persistent phosphors from Pr 3+ -, Pb 2+ - or Bi 3+ -activated ultraviolet-C (200–280 nm) or ultraviolet-B (280–315 nm) persistent phosphors, leading to the discovery of ten Gd 3+ NB-UVB persistent phosphors such as Sr 3 Gd 2 Si 6 O 18 :Pr 3+ , Sr 3 Gd 2 Si 6 O 18 :Pb 2+ and Y 2 GdAl 2 Ga 3 O 12 :Bi 3+ as well as five ultraviolet-B persistent phosphors such as Y 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 :Pr 3+ , Sr 3 Y 2 Si 6 O 18 :Pb 2+ and Y 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 :Bi 3+ . The persistent energy transfer from the sensitizers to Gd 3+ is very efficient and the Gd 3+ NB-UVB afterglow can last for more than 10 hours. This study expands the persistent luminescence research to the NB-UVB as well as the broader ultraviolet-B spectral regions. Themore »NB-UVB persistent phosphors may act as self-sustained glowing NB-UVB radiation sources for dermatological therapy.« less