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  1. Element-calcium ratios in the skeleton of cold-water coral Desmophyllum dianthus represent potential archives for paleo-reconstruction of several ocean properties including temperature and nutrient concentrations. However, relatively large uncertainties in these proxy calibrations and heterogeneity in the skeletal composition have limited its application to date. We address these issues by analyzing corals cultured under systematically varied seawater conditions (phosphate, barium, temperature, pH, feeding frequency) over a two-year period, and refine the calibration of P/Ca, Ba/Ca, U/Ca, and Li/Mg proxies for seawater phosphate, barium, carbonate ion concentration, and temperature, respectively. Composition of the corals is determined using laser-ablation ICPMS, with robust plasma conditions established using the Normalized Argon Index [1], and proxy element incorporation is evaluated for influences of temperature, pH, and feeding frequency. The aragonite precipitated during the stages of the culturing experiment is identified using fluorescent and geochemical labelling of the skeleton through calcein and lead isotopes, respectively. This approach allows us to resolve monthly and annual increments in these slow growing (1-2mm/year) organisms, and also to evaluate the influence of calcification rate on the composition. We address the issue of heterogeneity by adapting methods for LA-ICPMS imaging to create macroscale images to reveal the full pattern of skeletogenesis andmore »related compositional variability of D. dianthus. Preliminary images suggest that heterogeneity stems from the asymmetric precipitation of aragonite, and from centers of calcification (also known as early mineralization zones) that complicate the interpretation of elemental signals throughout the skeleton, but also help to identify new skeletal regions suitable for proxy measurement. Finally, we also discuss the role of endolithic organisms in some of these specimens. [1] Fietzke, J. & Frische, M. (2016), J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 31, 234–244.« less
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
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  5. A bstract A search is presented for a heavy W′ boson resonance decaying to a B or T vector-like quark and a t or a b quark, respectively. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb − 1 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Both decay channels result in a signature with a t quark, a Higgs or Z boson, and a b quark, each produced with a significant Lorentz boost. The all-hadronic decays of the Higgs or Z boson and of the t quark are selected using jet substructure techniques to reduce standard model backgrounds, resulting in a distinct three-jet W′ boson decay signature. No significant deviation in data with respect to the standard model background prediction is observed. Upper limits are set at 95% confidence level on the product of the W′ boson cross section and the final state branching fraction. A W′ boson with a mass below 3.1 TeV is excluded, given the benchmark model assumption of democratic branching fractions. In addition, limits are set based on generalizations of these assumptions. These are the most sensitive limits to datemore »for this final state.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
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  7. Abstract A new algorithm is presented to discriminate reconstructed hadronic decays of tau leptons ( τ h ) that originate from genuine tau leptons in the CMS detector against τ h candidates that originate from quark or gluon jets, electrons, or muons. The algorithm inputs information from all reconstructed particles in the vicinity of a τ h candidate and employs a deep neural network with convolutional layers to efficiently process the inputs. This algorithm leads to a significantly improved performance compared with the previously used one. For example, the efficiency for a genuine τ h to pass the discriminator against jets increases by 10–30% for a given efficiency for quark and gluon jets. Furthermore, a more efficient τ h reconstruction is introduced that incorporates additional hadronic decay modes. The superior performance of the new algorithm to discriminate against jets, electrons, and muons and the improved τ h reconstruction method are validated with LHC proton-proton collision data at √ s = 13 TeV.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
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  10. A bstract The associated production of a W and a Z boson is studied in final states with multiple leptons produced in proton-proton (pp) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV using 137 fb − 1 of data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. A measurement of the total inclusive production cross section yields σ tot (pp → WZ) = 50 . 6 ± 0 . 8 (stat) ± 1 . 5 (syst) ± 1 . 1 (lumi) ± 0 . 5 (theo) pb. Measurements of the fiducial and differential cross sections for several key observables are also performed in all the final-state lepton flavour and charge compositions with a total of three charged leptons, which can be electrons or muons. All results are compared with theoretical predictions computed up to next-to-next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics plus next-to-leading or- der in electroweak theory and for various sets of parton distribution functions. The results include direct measurements of the charge asymmetry and the W and Z vector boson polarization. The first observation of longitudinally polarized W bosons in WZ production is reported. Anomalous gauge couplings are searched for, leading to new constraints on beyond-the-standard-model contributions to the WZmore »triple gauge coupling.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023