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  1. Changes induced by irradiation with 1.1 MeV protons in the transport properties and deep trap spectra of thick (>80 μm) undoped κ-Ga2O3 layers grown on sapphire are reported. Prior to irradiation, the films had a donor concentration of ∼1015 cm−3, with the two dominant donors having ionization energies of 0.25 and 0.15 eV, respectively. The main electron traps were located at Ec−0.7 eV. Deep acceptor spectra measured by capacitance-voltage profiling under illumination showed optical ionization thresholds near 2, 2.8, and 3.4 eV. The diffusion length of nonequilibrium charge carriers for ɛ-Ga2O3 was 70 ± 5 nm prior to irradiation. After irradiation with 1.1 MeV protons to a fluence of 1014 cm−2, there was total depletion of mobile charge carriers in the top 4.5 μm of the film, close to the estimated proton range. The carrier removal rate was 10–20 cm−1, a factor of 5–10 lower than in β-Ga2O3, while the concentration of deep acceptors in the lower half of the bandgap and the diffusion length showed no significant change. 
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  2. Deep centers and their influence on photocurrent spectra and transients were studied for interdigitated photoresistors on α -Ga 2 O 3 undoped semi-insulating films grown by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire. Characterization involving current-voltage measurements in the dark and with monochromatic illumination with photons with energies from 1.35 eV to 4.9 eV, Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC), Photoinduced Current Transients Spectroscopy (PICTS) showed the Fermi level in the dark was pinned at E c −0.8 eV, with other prominent centers being deep acceptors with optical thresholds near 2.3 eV and 4.9 eV and deep traps with levels at E c −0.5 eV, E c −0.6 eV. Measurements of photocurrent transients produced by illumination with photon energies 2.3 eV and 4.9 eV and Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) imaging point to the high sensitivity and external quantum efficiency values being due to hole trapping enhancing the lifetime of electrons and inherently linked with the long photocurrent transients. The photocurrent transients are stretched exponents, indicating the strong contribution of the presence of centers with barriers for electron capture and/or of potential fluctuations. 
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  3. The electric field dependence of emission rate of the deep traps with level near Ec−0.6 eV, so-called E1 traps, was studied by means of deep level transient spectroscopy measurements over a wide range of applied voltages. The traps were initially introduced by 900 °C ampoule annealing in molecular hydrogen. The results indicate the activation energy of the centers and the ratio of high-field to low-field electron emission rates at a fixed temperature scale as the square root of electric field, suggesting that the centers behave as deep donors. The possible microscopic nature of the centers in view of recent theoretical calculations is discussed. The most likely candidates for the E1 centers are SiGa1–H or SnGa2–H complexes.

     
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  4. Two-inch diameter α -Ga 2 O 3 films with thickness ∼4 μ m were grown on basal plane sapphire by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) and doped with Sn in the top ∼1 μ m from the surface. These films were characterized with High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging in the Secondary Electron (SE) and Micro-cathodoluminescence (MCL) modes, contactless sheet resistivity mapping, capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, admittance spectra, and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. The edge and screw dislocations densities estimated from HRXRD data were respectively 7.4 × 10 9 cm −2 and 1.5 × 10 7 cm −2 , while the films had a smooth surface with a low density (∼10 3 cm −2 ) of circular openings with diameters between 10 and 100 μ m. The sheet resistivity of the films varied over the entire 2-inch diameter from 200 to 500 Ω square −1 . The net donor concentration was ∼10 18 cm −3 near the surface and increased to ∼4 × 10 18 cm −3 deeper inside the sample. The deep traps observed in admittance and DLTS spectra had levels at E c −0.25 eV and E c −0.35 eV, with concentration ∼10 15 cm −3 and E c −1 eV with concentration ∼10 16 cm −3 . 
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