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Creators/Authors contains: "Kollmeier, Juna A."

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  1. Abstract

    “Changing-look” active galactic nuclei (CL-AGNs) challenge our basic ideas about the physics of accretion flows and circumnuclear gas around supermassive black holes. Using first-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey V (SDSS-V) repeated spectroscopy of nearly 29,000 previously known active galactic nuclei (AGNs), combined with dedicated follow-up spectroscopy, and publicly available optical light curves, we have identified 116 CL-AGNs where (at least) one broad emission line has essentially (dis-)appeared, as well as 88 other extremely variable systems. Our CL-AGN sample, with 107 newly identified cases, is the largest reported to date, and includes ∼0.4% of the AGNs reobserved in first-year SDSS-V operations. Among our CL-AGNs, 67% exhibit dimming while 33% exhibit brightening. Our sample probes extreme AGN spectral variability on months to decades timescales, including some cases of recurring transitions on surprisingly short timescales (≲2 months in the rest frame). We find that CL events are preferentially found in lower-Eddington-ratio (fEdd) systems: Our CL-AGNs have afEdddistribution that significantly differs from that of a carefully constructed, redshift- and luminosity-matched control sample (Anderson–Darling test yieldingpAD≈ 6 × 10−5; medianfEdd≈ 0.025 versus 0.043). This preference for lowfEddstrengthens previous findings of higher CL-AGN incidence at lowerfEdd, found in smaller samples. Finally, we show that the broad Mgiiemission line in our CL-AGN sample tends to vary significantly less than the broad Hβemission line. Our large CL-AGN sample demonstrates the advantages and challenges in using multi-epoch spectroscopy from large surveys to study extreme AGN variability and physics.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 26, 2025
  2. Abstract

    We present the final data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Reverberation Mapping (RM) project, a precursor to the SDSS-V Black Hole Mapper RM program. This data set includes 11 yr photometric and 7 yr spectroscopic light curves for 849 broad-line quasars over a redshift range of 0.1 <z< 4.5 and a luminosity range ofLbol= 1044−47.5erg s−1, along with spectral and variability measurements. We report 23, 81, 125, and 110 RM lags (relative to optical continuum variability) for broad Hα, Hβ, Mgii, and Civusing the SDSS-RM sample, spanning much of the luminosity and redshift ranges of the sample. Using 30 low-redshift RM active galactic nuclei with dynamical-modeling black hole masses, we derive a new estimate of the average virial factor oflogf=0.62±0.07for the line dispersion measured from the rms spectrum. The intrinsic scatter of individual virial factors is 0.31 ± 0.07 dex, indicating a factor of 2 systematic uncertainty in RM black hole masses. Our lag measurements reveal significantRLrelations for Hβand Mgiiat high redshift, consistent with the latest measurements based on heterogeneous samples. While we are unable to robustly constrain the slope of theRLrelation for Civgiven the limited dynamic range in luminosity, we found substantially larger scatter in Civlags at fixedL1350. Using the SDSS-RM lag sample, we derive improved single-epoch (SE) mass recipes for Hβ, Mgii, and Civ, which are consistent with their respective RM masses as well as between the SE recipes from two different lines, over the luminosity range probed by our sample. The new Hβand Mgiirecipes are approximately unbiased estimators at given RM masses, but there are systematic biases in the Civrecipe. The intrinsic scatter of SE masses around RM masses is ∼0.45 dex for Hβand Mgii, increasing to ∼0.58 dex for Civ.

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  3. Abstract

    Stars that formed with an initial mass of over 50Mare very rare today, but they are thought to be more common in the early Universe. The fates of those early, metal-poor, massive stars are highly uncertain. Most are expected to directly collapse to black holes, while some may explode as a result of rotationally powered engines or the pair-creation instability. We present the chemical abundances of J0931+0038, a nearby low-mass star identified in early follow-up of the SDSS-V Milky Way Mapper, which preserves the signature of unusual nucleosynthesis from a massive star in the early Universe. J0931+0038 has a relatively high metallicity ([Fe/H] = −1.76 ± 0.13) but an extreme odd–even abundance pattern, with some of the lowest known abundance ratios of [N/Fe], [Na/Fe], [K/Fe], [Sc/Fe], and [Ba/Fe]. The implication is that a majority of its metals originated in a single extremely metal-poor nucleosynthetic source. An extensive search through nucleosynthesis predictions finds a clear preference for progenitors with initial mass >50M, making J0931+0038 one of the first observational constraints on nucleosynthesis in this mass range. However, the full abundance pattern is not matched by any models in the literature. J0931+0038 thus presents a challenge for the next generation of nucleosynthesis models and motivates the study of high-mass progenitor stars impacted by convection, rotation, jets, and/or binary companions. Though rare, more examples of unusual early nucleosynthesis in metal-poor stars should be found in upcoming large spectroscopic surveys.

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  4. Abstract The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has recently initiated its fifth survey generation (SDSS-V), with a central focus on stellar spectroscopy. In particular, SDSS-V's Milky Way Mapper program will deliver multiepoch optical and near-infrared spectra for more than 5 × 10 6 stars across the entire sky, covering a large range in stellar mass, surface temperature, evolutionary stage, and age. About 10% of those spectra will be of hot stars of OBAF spectral types, for whose analysis no established survey pipelines exist. Here we present the spectral analysis algorithm, ZETA-PAYNE, developed specifically to obtain stellar labels from SDSS-V spectra of stars with these spectral types and drawing on machine-learning tools. We provide details of the algorithm training, its test on artificial spectra, and its validation on two control samples of real stars. Analysis with ZETA-PAYNE leads to only modest internal uncertainties in the near-IR with APOGEE (optical with BOSS): 3%–10% (1%–2%) for T eff , 5%–30% (5%–25%) for v sin i , 1.7–6.3 km s −1 (0.7–2.2 km s −1 ) for radial velocity, <0.1 dex (<0.05 dex) for log g , and 0.4–0.5 dex (0.1 dex) for [M/H] of the star, respectively. We find a good agreement between atmospheric parameters of OBAF-type stars when inferred from their high- and low-resolution optical spectra. For most stellar labels, the APOGEE spectra are (far) less informative than the BOSS spectra of these stars, while log g , v sin i , and [M/H] are in most cases too uncertain for meaningful astrophysical interpretation. This makes BOSS low-resolution optical spectra better for stellar labels of OBAF-type stars, unless the latter are subject to high levels of extinction. 
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  5. Abstract We report the discovery of a new “changing-look” active galactic nucleus (CLAGN) event, in the quasar SDSS J162829.17+432948.5 at z = 0.2603, identified through repeat spectroscopy from the fifth Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-V). Optical photometry taken during 2020–2021 shows a dramatic dimming of Δ g ≈ 1 mag, followed by a rapid recovery on a timescale of several months, with the ≲2 month period of rebrightening captured in new SDSS-V and Las Cumbres Observatory spectroscopy. This is one of the fastest CLAGN transitions observed to date. Archival observations suggest that the object experienced a much more gradual dimming over the period of 2011–2013. Our spectroscopy shows that the photometric changes were accompanied by dramatic variations in the quasar-like continuum and broad-line emission. The excellent agreement between the pre- and postdip photometric and spectroscopic appearances of the source, as well as the fact that the dimmest spectra can be reproduced by applying a single extinction law to the brighter spectral states, favor a variable line-of-sight obscuration as the driver of the observed transitions. Such an interpretation faces several theoretical challenges, and thus an alternative accretion-driven scenario cannot be excluded. The recent events observed in this quasar highlight the importance of spectroscopic monitoring of large active galactic nucleus samples on weeks-to-months timescales, which the SDSS-V is designed to achieve. 
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  6. Evans, Christopher J. ; Bryant, Julia J. ; Motohara, Kentaro (Ed.)
  7. null (Ed.)
  8. Abstract

    Using data from the Complete Nearby (redshiftzhost< 0.02) sample of Type Ia Supernovae (CNIa0.02), we find a linear relation between two parameters derived from theBVcolor curves of Type Ia supernovae: thecolor stretchsBVand the rising color slopes0*(BV)after the peak, and this relation applies to the full range ofsBV. ThesBVparameter is known to be tightly correlated with the peak luminosity, especially forfast decliners(dim Type Ia supernovae), and the luminosity correlation withsBVis markedly better than with the classic light-curve width parameters such as Δm15(B). Thus, our new linear relation can be used to infer peak luminosity froms0*. UnlikesBV(or Δm15(B)), the measurement ofs0*(BV)does not rely on a well-determined time of light-curve peak or color maximum, making it less demanding on the light-curve coverage than past approaches.

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  9. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Many phenomenologically successful cosmological simulations employ kinetic winds to model galactic outflows. Yet systematic studies of how variations in kinetic wind scalings might alter observable galaxy properties are rare. Here we employ gadget-3 simulations to study how the baryon cycle, stellar mass function, and other galaxy and CGM predictions vary as a function of the assumed outflow speed and the scaling of the mass-loading factor with velocity dispersion. We design our fiducial model to reproduce the measured wind properties at 25 per cent of the virial radius from the Feedback In Realistic Environments simulations. We find that a strong dependence of η ∼ σ5 in low-mass haloes with $\sigma \lt 106\mathrm{\, km\, s^{-1}}$ is required to match the faint end of the stellar mass functions at $z$ > 1. In addition, faster winds significantly reduce wind recycling and heat more halo gas. Both effects result in less stellar mass growth in massive haloes and impact high ionization absorption in halo gas. We cannot simultaneously match the stellar content at $z$ = 2 and 0 within a single model, suggesting that an additional feedback source such as active galactic nucleus might be required in massive galaxies at lower redshifts, but the amount needed depends strongly on assumptions regarding the outflow properties. We run a 50 $\mathrm{Mpc}\, h^{-1}$, 2 × 5763 simulation with our fiducial parameters and show that it matches a range of star-forming galaxy properties at $z$ ∼ 0–2. 
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    Each of the giant planets within the Solar system has large moons but none of these moons have their own moons (which we call submoons). By analogy with studies of moons around short-period exoplanets, we investigate the tidal-dynamical stability of submoons. We find that 10 km-scale submoons can only survive around large (1000 km-scale) moons on wide-separation orbits. Tidal dissipation destabilizes the orbits of submoons around moons that are small or too close to their host planet; this is the case for most of the Solar system’s moons. A handful of known moons are, however, capable of hosting long-lived submoons: Saturn’s moons Titan and Iapetus, Jupiter’s moon Callisto, and Earth’s Moon. Based on its inferred mass and orbital separation, the newly discovered exomoon candidate Kepler-1625b-I can in principle host a large submoon, although its stability depends on a number of unknown parameters. We discuss the possible habitability of submoons and the potential for subsubmoons. The existence, or lack thereof, of submoons may yield important constraints on satellite formation and evolution in planetary systems.

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