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  1. null (Ed.)
  2. Abstract

    Ocean circulation supplies the surface ocean with the nutrients that fuel global ocean productivity. However, the mechanisms and rates of water and nutrient transport from the deep ocean to the upper ocean are poorly known. Here, we use the nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate to place observational constraints on nutrient transport from the Southern Ocean surface into the global pycnocline (roughly the upper 1.2 km), as opposed to directly from the deep ocean. We estimate that 62 ± 5% of the pycnocline nitrate and phosphate originate from the Southern Ocean. Mixing, as opposed to advection, accounts for most of the gross nutrient input to the pycnocline. However, in net, mixing carries nutrients away from the pycnocline. Despite the quantitative dominance of mixing in the gross nutrient transport, the nutrient richness of the pycnocline relies on the large-scale advective flow, through which nutrient-rich water is converted to nutrient-poor surface water that eventually flows to the North Atlantic.

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  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Background Lagoons are common along coastlines worldwide and are important for biogeochemical element cycling, coastal biodiversity, coastal erosion protection and blue carbon sequestration. These ecosystems are frequently disturbed by weather, tides, and human activities. Here, we investigated a shallow lagoon in New England. The brackish ecosystem releases hydrogen sulfide particularly upon physical disturbance, causing blooms of anoxygenic sulfur-oxidizing phototrophs. To study the habitat, microbial community structure, assembly and function we carried out in situ experiments investigating the bloom dynamics over time. Results Phototrophic microbial mats and permanently or seasonally stratified water columns commonly contain multiple phototrophic lineages that coexist based on their light, oxygen and nutrient preferences. We describe similar coexistence patterns and ecological niches in estuarine planktonic blooms of phototrophs. The water column showed steep gradients of oxygen, pH, sulfate, sulfide, and salinity. The upper part of the bloom was dominated by aerobic phototrophic Cyanobacteria , the middle and lower parts by anoxygenic purple sulfur bacteria ( Chromatiales ) and green sulfur bacteria ( Chlorobiales ), respectively. We show stable coexistence of phototrophic lineages from five bacterial phyla and present metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of two uncultured Chlorobaculum and Prosthecochloris species. In addition to genes involved in sulfur oxidation and photopigment biosynthesis the MAGs contained complete operons encoding for terminal oxidases. The metagenomes also contained numerous contigs affiliating with Microviridae viruses, potentially affecting Chlorobi . Our data suggest a short sulfur cycle within the bloom in which elemental sulfur produced by sulfide-oxidizing phototrophs is most likely reduced back to sulfide by Desulfuromonas sp . Conclusions The release of sulfide creates a habitat selecting for anoxygenic sulfur-oxidizing phototrophs, which in turn create a niche for sulfur reducers. Strong syntrophism between these guilds apparently drives a short sulfur cycle that may explain the rapid development of the bloom. The fast growth and high biomass yield of Chlorobi -affiliated organisms implies that the studied lineages of green sulfur bacteria can thrive in hypoxic habitats. This oxygen tolerance is corroborated by oxidases found in MAGs of uncultured Chlorobi . The findings improve our understanding of the ecology and ecophysiology of anoxygenic phototrophs and their impact on the coupled biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Abstract

    In hyperalkaline () fluids that have participated in low‐temperature (<150) serpentinization reactions, the dominant form of C is often methane (), but the origin of thisis uncertain. To assessorigin in serpentinite aquifers within the Samail Ophiolite, Oman, we determined fluid chemical compositions, analyzed taxonomic profiles of fluid‐hosted microbial communities, and measured isotopic compositions of hydrocarbon gases. We found that 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated with methanogens were widespread in the aquifer. We measured clumped isotopologue (D and) relative abundances less than equilibrium, consistent with substantial microbialproduction. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between dissolved inorganic C concentrations andacross fluids bearing microbiological evidence of methanogenic activity, suggesting that the apparent C isotope effect of microbial methanogenesis is modulated by C availability. An additional source ofis evidenced by the presence of‐bearing fluid inclusions in the Samail Ophiolite and our measurement of highvalues of ethane and propane, which are similar to those reported in studies of‐rich inclusions in rocks from the oceanic lithosphere. In addition, we observed 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated with aerobic methanotrophs and, in lower abundance, anaerobic methanotrophs, indicating that microbial consumption ofin the ophiolite may further enrichin13C. We conclude that substantial microbialis produced under varying degrees of C limitation and mixes with abioticreleased from fluid inclusions. This study lends insight into the functioning of microbial ecosystems supported by water/rock reactions.

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