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  1. Abstract

    Precise, high-cadence, long-term records of stellar spectral variability at different temporal scales lead to better understanding of a wide variety of phenomena including stellar atmospheres and dynamos, convective motions, and rotational periods. Here, we investigate the variability of solar Balmer lines (Hα,β,γ,δ) observed by space-borne radiometers (OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2), combining these precise, long-term observations with high-resolution data from the ground-based NSO/ISS spectrograph. We relate the detected variability to the appearance of magnetic features on the solar disk. We find that on solar-rotational timescales (about 1 month), the Balmer line activity indices (defined as line-core to line-wing ratios) closely follow variations in the total solar irradiance (which is predominantly photospheric), thus frequently (specifically, during passages of sunspot groups) deviating from behavior of activity indices that track chromospheric activity levels. On longer timescales, the correlation with chromospheric indices increases, with periods of low correlation or even anticorrelation found at intermediate timescales. Comparison of these observations with estimates from semiempirical irradiance reconstructions helps quantify the contributions of different magnetic and quiet features. We conclude that both the lower sensitivity to network and in part the higher sensitivity to filaments and prominences, may result in complex, time-dependent relationships between Balmer andmore »other chromospheric indices observed for the Sun and solar-like stars. The fact that core and wings contribute in a similar manner to the variability, and current knowledge of Balmer-lines formation in stellar atmospheres, supports the notion that Balmer line core-to-wing ratio indices behave more like photospheric rather than chromospheric indices.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
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  4. A bstract The first measurement of the top quark pair ( $$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$ t t ¯ ) production cross section in proton-proton collisions at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 . 6 TeV is presented. Data recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC in Summer 2022, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 . 21 fb − 1 , are analyzed. Events are selected with one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons) and additional jets. A maximum likelihood fit is performed in event categories defined by the number and flavors of the leptons, the number of jets, and the number of jets identified as originating from b quarks. An inclusive $$ \textrm{t}\overline{\textrm{t}} $$ t t ¯ production cross section of 881 ± 23 (stat + syst) ± 20 (lumi) pb is measured, in agreement with the standard model prediction of $$ {924}_{-40}^{+32} $$ 924 − 40 + 32 pb.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  5. A bstract A search for physics beyond the standard model (SM) in the final state with a hadronically decaying tau lepton and a neutrino is presented. This analysis is based on data recorded by the CMS experiment from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at the LHC, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 138 fb − 1 . The transverse mass spectrum is analyzed for the presence of new physics. No significant deviation from the SM prediction is observed. Limits are set on the production cross section of a W′ boson decaying into a tau lepton and a neutrino. Lower limits are set on the mass of the sequential SM-like heavy charged vector boson and the mass of a quantum black hole. Upper limits are placed on the couplings of a new boson to the SM fermions. Constraints are put on a nonuniversal gauge interaction model and an effective field theory model. For the first time, upper limits on the cross section of t -channel leptoquark (LQ) exchange are presented. These limits are translated into exclusion limits on the LQ mass and on its coupling in the t -channel. The sensitivity of this analysis extends intomore »the parameter space of LQ models that attempt to explain the anomalies observed in B meson decays. The limits presented for the various interpretations are the most stringent to date. Additionally, a model-independent limit is provided.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  6. Abstract The Precision Proton Spectrometer (PPS) of the CMS and TOTEM experiments collected 107.7 fb -1 in proton-proton (pp) collisions at the LHC at 13 TeV (Run 2). This paper describes the key features of the PPS alignment and optics calibrations, the proton reconstruction procedure, as well as the detector efficiency and the performance of the PPS simulation. The reconstruction and simulation are validated using a sample of (semi)exclusive dilepton events. The performance of PPS has proven the feasibility of continuously operating a near-beam proton spectrometer at a high luminosity hadron collider.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  7. A bstract A search for the electroweak production of a vector-like quark T′, decaying to a top quark and a Higgs boson is presented. The search is based on a sample of proton-proton collision events recorded at the LHC at $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb − 1 . This is the first T′ search that exploits the Higgs boson decay to a pair of photons. For narrow isospin singlet T′ states with masses up to 1.1 TeV, the excellent diphoton invariant mass resolution of 1–2% results in an increased sensitivity compared to previous searches based on the same production mechanism. The electroweak production of a T′ quark with mass up to 960 GeV is excluded at 95% confidence level, assuming a coupling strength κ T = 0 . 25 and a relative decay width Γ /M T′ < 5%.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
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  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024