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  4. HN(CH 2 CH 2 PR 2 ) 2 -ligated copper borohydride complexes, ( R PN H P)Cu(BH 4 ) (R = i Pr, Cy, t Bu), which can be prepared from ( R PN H P)CuBr and NaBH 4 , are capable of catalyzing the hydrogenation of aldehydes in an alcoholic solvent. More active hydrogenation catalysts are ( R PN H P)CuBr mixed with KO t Bu, allowing various aldehydes and ketones to be efficiently reduced to alcohols except those bearing a nitro, N -unprotected pyrrole, pyridine, or an ester group, or those prone to aldol condensation ( e.g. , 1-heptanal). Modifying the catalyst structure by replacing the NH group in ( i Pr PN H P)CuBr with an NMe group results in an inferior catalyst but preserves some catalytic activity. The hexanuclear copper hydride cluster, ( i Pr PN H P) 3 Cu 6 H 6 , is also competent in catalyzing the hydrogenation of aldehydes such as benzaldehyde and N -methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxaldehyde, albeit accompanied by decomposition pathways. The catalytic performance can be enhanced through the addition of a strong base or i Pr PN H P. The three catalytic systems likely share the same catalytically active species, which ismore »proposed to be a mononuclear copper hydride ( R PN H P)CuH with the NH group bound to copper.« less
  5. The reaction of 1,3,5-( i Pr 2 PO) 3 C 6 H 3 with Co 2 (CO) 8 leads to the isolation of a POCOP-type mononuclear pincer complex {κ P ,κ C ,κ P -2,4,6-( i Pr 2 PO) 3 C 6 H 2 }Co(CO) 2 (1) or a tetranuclear species {κ P -{κ P ,κ C ,κ P -2,4,6-( i Pr 2 PO) 3 C 6 H 2 }Co(CO) 2 } 2 Co 2 (CO) 6 (2), depending on the ligand to cobalt ratio employed. The latter compound can be an impurity during the synthesis of {2,6-( i Pr 2 PO) 2 -4-Me 2 N-C 6 H 2 }Co(CO) 2 , when the ligand precursor 5-(dimethylamino)resorcinol is contaminated with phloroglucinol due to incomplete monoamination. Similarly, the reaction of 1,3,5-( i Pr 2 PO) 3 C 6 H 3 with NiCl 2 in the presence of 4-dimethylaminopyridine provides {κ P ,κ C ,κ P -2,4,6-( i Pr 2 PO) 3 C 6 H 2 }NiCl (3) bearing an appended phosphinite group. Structures 1–3 have been studied by X-ray crystallography.
  6. Abstract

    Organic molecules that contain alkyl-difluoromethyl moieties have received increased attention in medicinal chemistry, but their synthesis in a modular and late-stage fashion remains challenging. We report herein an efficient copper-catalyzed radical relay approach for the carbo-difluoromethylation of alkenes. This approach simultaneously introduces CF2H groups along with complex alkyl or aryl groups into alkenes with regioselectivity opposite to traditional CF2H radical addition. We demonstrate a broad substrate scope and a wide functional group compatibility. This scalable protocol is applied to the late-stage functionalization of complex molecules and the synthesis of CF2H analogues of bioactive molecules. Mechanistic studies and density functional theory calculations suggest a unique ligand effect on the reactivity of the Cu-CF2H species.