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  1. ABSTRACT

    We use the large spectroscopic data set of the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey to investigate the kinematics and energetics of ionized gas outflows. Using a sample of 598 star-forming galaxies at redshift 1.4 < z < 3.8, we decompose [O iii] and $\rm {H}\,\alpha$ emission lines into narrow and broad components, finding significant detections of broad components in 10 per cent of the sample. The ionized outflow velocity from individual galaxies appears independent of galaxy properties, such as stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and SFR surface density (ΣSFR). Adopting a simple outflow model, we estimate the mass-, energy-, and momentum-loading factors of the ionized outflows, finding modest values with averages of 0.33, 0.04, and 0.22, respectively. The larger momentum- than energy-loading factors, for the adopted physical parameters, imply that these ionized outflows are primarily momentum driven. We further find a marginal correlation (2.5σ) between the mass-loading factor and stellar mass in agreement with predictions by simulations, scaling as ηm$\propto M_{\star }^{-0.45}$. This shallow scaling relation is consistent with these ionized outflows being driven by a combination of mechanical energy generated by supernovae explosions and radiation pressure acting on dusty material. In a majority of galaxies, the outflowing material does not appear to have sufficient velocity to escape the gravitational potential of their host, likely recycling back at later times. Together, these results suggest that the ionized outflows traced by nebular emission lines are negligible, with the bulk of mass and energy carried out in other gaseous phases.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We present the elemental abundances and ages of 19 massive quiescent galaxies atz∼ 1.4 andz∼ 2.1 from the Keck Heavy Metal Survey. The ultradeep LRIS and MOSFIRE spectra were modeled using a full-spectrum stellar population fitting code with variable abundance patterns. The galaxies have iron abundances between [Fe/H] = −0.5 and −0.1 dex, with typical values of −0.2 [−0.3] atz∼ 1.4 [z∼ 2.1]. We also find a tentativelogσv–[Fe/H] relation atz∼ 1.4. The magnesium-to-iron ratios span [Mg/Fe] = 0.1–0.6 dex, with typical values of 0.3 [0.5] dex atz∼ 1.4 [z∼ 2.1]. The ages imply formation redshifts ofzform= 2–8. Compared to quiescent galaxies at lower redshifts, we find that [Fe/H] was ∼0.2 dex lower atz= 1.4–2.1. We find no evolution in [Mg/Fe] out toz∼ 1.4, though thez∼ 2.1 galaxies are 0.2 dex enhanced compared toz= 0–0.7. A comparison of these results to a chemical evolution model indicates that galaxies at higher redshift form at progressively earlier epochs and over shorter star formation timescales, with thez∼ 2.1 galaxies forming the bulk of their stars over 150 Myr atzform∼ 4. This evolution cannot be solely attributed to an increased number of quiescent galaxies at later times; several Heavy Metal galaxies have extreme chemical properties not found in massive galaxies atz∼ 0.0–0.7. Thus, the chemical properties of individual galaxies must evolve over time. Minor mergers also cannot fully account for this evolution as they cannot increase [Fe/H], particularly in galaxy centers. Consequently, the buildup of massive quiescent galaxies sincez∼ 2.1 may require further mechanisms, such as major mergers and/or central star formation.

     
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  3. Abstract

    In this paper, we present the Heavy Metal Survey, which obtained ultradeep medium-resolution spectra of 21 massive quiescent galaxies at 1.3 <z< 2.3 with Keck/LRIS and MOSFIRE. With integration times of up to 16 hr per band per galaxy, we observe numerous Balmer and metal absorption lines in atmospheric windows. We successfully derive spectroscopic redshifts for all 21 galaxies, and for 19 we also measure stellar velocity dispersions (σv), ages, and elemental abundances, as detailed in an accompanying paper. Except for one emission-line active galactic nucleus, all galaxies are confirmed as quiescent through their faint or absent Hαemission and evolved stellar spectra. For most galaxies exhibiting faint Hα, elevated [Nii]/Hαsuggests a non-star-forming origin. We calculate dynamical masses (Mdyn) by combiningσvwith structural parameters obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope COSMOS(-DASH) survey and compare them with stellar masses (M*) derived using spectrophotometric modeling, considering various assumptions. For a fixed initial mass function (IMF), we observe a strong correlation betweenMdyn/M*andσv. This correlation may suggest that a varying IMF, with high-σvgalaxies being more bottom heavy, was already in place atz∼ 2. When implementing theσv-dependent IMF found in the cores of nearby early-type galaxiesandcorrecting for biases in our stellar mass and size measurements, we find a low scatter inMdyn/M*of 0.14 dex. However, these assumptions result in unphysical stellar masses, which exceed the dynamical masses by 34%. This tension suggests that distant quiescent galaxies do not simply grow inside-out into today’s massive early-type galaxies and the evolution is more complicated.

     
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  4. Abstract

    Using deep near-infrared Keck/MOSFIRE observations, we analyze the rest-optical spectra of eight star-forming galaxies in the COSMOS and GOODS-N fields. We reach integration times of ∼10 hr in the deepest bands, pushing the limits on current ground-based observational capabilities. The targets fall into two redshift bins, of five galaxies atz∼ 1.7 and three galaxies atz∼ 2.5, and were selected as likely to yield significant auroral-line detections. Even with long integration times, detection of the auroral lines remains challenging. We stack the spectra together into subsets based on redshift, improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the [Oiii]λ4364 auroral emission line and, in turn, enabling a direct measurement of the oxygen abundance for each stack. We compare these measurements to commonly employed strong-line ratios alongside measurements from the literature. We find that the stacks fall within the distribution ofz> 1 literature measurements, but a larger sample size is needed to robustly constrain the relationships between strong-line ratios and oxygen abundance at high redshift. We additionally report detections of [Oi]λ6302 for nine individual galaxies and composite spectra of 21 targets in the MOSFIRE pointings. We plot their line ratios on the [Oiii]λ5008/Hβversus [Oi]λ6302/Hαdiagnostic diagram, comparing our targets to local galaxies and Hiiregions. We find that the [Oi]/Hαratios in our sample of galaxies are consistent with being produced in gas ionized byα-enhanced massive stars, as has been previously inferred for rapidly forming galaxies at early cosmic times.

     
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  5. We present elemental abundance patterns (C, N, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) for a population of 135 massive quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 0.7 with ultra-deep rest-frame optical spectroscopy drawn from the LEGA-C survey. We derive average ages and elemental abundances in four bins of stellar velocity dispersion (σv) ranging from 150–250 km s−1 using a full-spectrum hierarchical Bayesian model. The resulting elemental abundance measurements are precise to 0.05 dex. The majority of elements, as well as the total metallicity and stellar age, show a positive correlation with σv. Thus, the highest dispersion galaxies formed the earliest and are the most metal-rich. We find only mild or nonsignificant trends between [X/Fe] and σv, suggesting that the average star formation timescale does not strongly depend on velocity dispersion. To first order, the abundance patterns of the z ∼ 0.7 quiescent galaxies are strikingly similar to those at z ∼ 0. However, at the lowest-velocity dispersions, the z ∼ 0.7 galaxies have slightly enhanced N, Mg, Ti, and Ni abundance ratios and earlier formation redshifts than their z ∼ 0 counterparts. Thus, while the higher-mass quiescent galaxy population shows little evolution, the low-mass quiescent galaxies population has grown significantly over the past 6 Gyr. Finally, the abundance patterns of both z ∼ 0 and z ∼ 0.7 quiescent galaxies differ considerably from theoretical prediction based on a chemical evolution model, indicating that our understanding of the enrichment histories of these galaxies is still very limited. 
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  6. ABSTRACT

    We report on the discovery of cool gas inflows towards three star-forming galaxies at <z> ∼ 2.30. Analysis of Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopy reveals redshifted low-ionization interstellar (LIS) metal absorption lines with centroid velocities of 60–130 km s−1. These inflows represent some of the most robust detections of inflowing gas into isolated, star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Our analysis suggests that the inflows are due to recycling metal-enriched gas from previous ejections. Comparisons between the galaxies with inflows and a larger parent sample of 131 objects indicate that galaxies with detected inflows may have higher specific star formation rates (sSFRs) and star-formation-rate surface densities (ΣSFR). However, when additional galaxies without robustly detected inflows based on centroid velocity but whose LIS absorption line profiles indicate large red-wing velocities are considered, galaxies with inflows do not show unique properties relative to those lacking inflows. Additionally, we calculate the covering fraction of cool inflowing gas as a function of red-wing inflow velocity, finding an enhancement in high-sSFR binned galaxies, likely due to an increase in the amount of recycling gas. Together, these results suggest that the low detection rate of galaxies with cool inflows is primarily related to the viewing angle rather than the physical properties of the galaxies.

     
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  7. Abstract

    We use the large spectroscopic data set of the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey to investigate some of the key factors responsible for the elevated ionization parameters (U) inferred for high-redshift galaxies, focusing in particular on the role of star-formation-rate surface density (ΣSFR). Using a sample of 317 galaxies with spectroscopic redshiftszspec≃ 1.9–3.7, we construct composite rest-frame optical spectra in bins of ΣSFRand infer electron densities,ne, using the ratio of the [Oii]λλ3727, 3730 doublet. Our analysis suggests a significant (≃3σ) correlation betweenneand ΣSFR. We further find significant correlations betweenUand ΣSFRfor composite spectra of a subsample of 113 galaxies, and for a smaller sample of 25 individual galaxies with inferences ofU. The increase inne—and possibly also the volume filling factor of dense clumps in Hiiregions—with ΣSFRappear to be important factors in explaining the relationship betweenUand ΣSFR. Further, the increase inneand SFR with redshift at a fixed stellar mass can account for most of the redshift evolution ofU. These results suggest that the gas density, which setsneand the overall level of star formation activity, may play a more important role than metallicity evolution in explaining the elevated ionization parameters of high-redshift galaxies.

     
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  8. Aims. We aim to quantify the relation between the dust-to-gas mass ratio (DTG) and gas-phase metallicity of z  = 2.1 − 2.5 luminous galaxies and contrast this high-redshift relation against analogous constraints at z  = 0. Methods. We present a sample of ten star-forming main-sequence galaxies in the redshift range 2.1 <  z  < 2.5 with rest-optical emission-line information available from the MOSDEF survey and with ALMA 1.2 millimetre and CO J  = 3 − 2 follow-up observations. The galaxies have stellar masses ranging from 10 10.3 to 10 10.6   M ⊙ and cover a range in star-formation rate from 35 to 145 M ⊙ yr −1 . We calculated the gas-phase oxygen abundance of these galaxies from rest-optical nebular emission lines (8.4 < 12 + log(O/H) < 8.8, corresponding to 0.5−1.25 Z ⊙ ). We estimated the dust and H 2 masses of the galaxies (using a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H 2 conversion factor) from the 1.2 mm and CO J  = 3 − 2 observations, respectively, from which we estimated a DTG. Results. We find that the galaxies in this sample follow the trends already observed between CO line luminosity and dust-continuum luminosity from z  = 0 to z  = 3, extending such trends to fainter galaxies at 2.1 <  z  < 2.5 than observed to date. We find no second-order metallicity dependence in the CO – dust-continuum luminosity relation for the galaxies presented in this work. The DTGs of main-sequence galaxies at 2.1 <  z  < 2.5 are consistent with an increase in the DTG with gas-phase metallicity. The metallicity dependence of the DTG is driven by the metallicity dependence of the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor. Galaxies at z  = 2.1 − 2.5 are furthermore consistent with the DTG-metallicity relation found at z  = 0 (i.e. with no significant evolution), providing relevant constraints for galaxy formation models. These results furthermore imply that the metallicity of galaxies should be taken into account when estimating cold-gas masses from dust-continuum emission, which is especially relevant when studying metal-poor low-mass or high-redshift galaxies. 
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  9. Abstract

    We present elemental abundance patterns (C, N, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni) for a population of 135 massive quiescent galaxies atz∼ 0.7 with ultra-deep rest-frame optical spectroscopy drawn from the LEGA-C survey. We derive average ages and elemental abundances in four bins of stellar velocity dispersion (σv) ranging from 150–250 km s−1using a full-spectrum hierarchical Bayesian model. The resulting elemental abundance measurements are precise to 0.05 dex. The majority of elements, as well as the total metallicity and stellar age, show a positive correlation withσv. Thus, the highest dispersion galaxies formed the earliest and are the most metal-rich. We find only mild or nonsignificant trends between [X/Fe] andσv, suggesting that the average star formation timescale does not strongly depend on velocity dispersion. To first order, the abundance patterns of thez∼ 0.7 quiescent galaxies are strikingly similar to those atz∼ 0. However, at the lowest-velocity dispersions, thez∼ 0.7 galaxies have slightly enhanced N, Mg, Ti, and Ni abundance ratios and earlier formation redshifts than theirz∼ 0 counterparts. Thus, while the higher-mass quiescent galaxy population shows little evolution, the low-mass quiescent galaxies population has grown significantly over the past 6 Gyr. Finally, the abundance patterns of bothz∼ 0 andz∼ 0.7 quiescent galaxies differ considerably from theoretical prediction based on a chemical evolution model, indicating that our understanding of the enrichment histories of these galaxies is still very limited.

     
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