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  1. Abstract

    We present a method of extrapolating the spectroscopic behavior of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regime up to 2.30μm using optical spectroscopy. Such a process is useful for accurately estimating K-corrections and other photometric quantities of SNe Ia in the NIR. A principal component analysis is performed on data consisting of Carnegie Supernova Project I & II optical and NIR FIRE spectra to produce models capable of making these extrapolations. This method differs from previous spectral template methods by not parameterizing models strictly by photometric light-curve properties of SNe Ia, allowing for more flexibility of the resulting extrapolated NIR flux. A difference of around −3.1% to −2.7% in the total integrated NIR flux between these extrapolations and the observations is seen here for most test cases including Branch core-normal and shallow-silicon subtypes. However, larger deviations from the observation are found for other tests, likely due to the limited high-velocity and broad-line SNe Ia in the training sample. Maximum-light principal components are shown to allow for spectroscopic predictions of the color-stretch light-curve parameter,sBV, within approximately ±0.1 units of the value measured with photometry. We also show these results compare well with NIR templates, although in most cases the templates are marginally more fitting to observations, illustrating a need for more concurrent optical+NIR spectroscopic observations to truly understand the diversity of SNe Ia in the NIR.

     
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  2. Abstract We present the photometry of 16 91T/99aa-like Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Las Cumbres Observatory. We also use an additional set of 21 91T/99aa-like SNe Ia and 87 normal SNe Ia from the literature for an analysis of the standardizability of the luminosity of 91T/99aa-like SNe. We find that 91T/99aa-like SNe are 0.2 mag brighter than normal SNe Ia, even when fully corrected by the light-curve shapes and colors. The weighted rms of the 91T/99aa-like SNe (with z CMB > 0.01) Hubble residuals is 0.25 ± 0.03 mag, suggesting that 91T/99aa-like SNe are also excellent relative distance indicators to ±12%. We compare the Hubble residuals with the pseudo-equivalent width (pEW) of Si ii λλ 6355 around the date of maximum brightness. We find that there is a broken linear correlation between those two measurements for our sample including both 91T/99aa-like and normal SNe Ia. As the pEW max (Si ii λλ 6355) increases, the Hubble residual increases when pEW max (Si ii λλ 6355) < 55.6 Å. However, the Hubble residual stays constant beyond this. Given that 91T/99aa-like SNe possess shallower Si ii lines than normal SNe Ia, the linear correlation at pEW max (Si ii λλ 6355) < 55.6 Å can account for the overall discrepancy of Hubble residuals derived from the two subgroups. Such a systematic effect needs to be taken into account when using SNe Ia to measure luminosity distances. 
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  3. Abstract

    We present the largest and most homogeneous collection of near-infrared (NIR) spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia): 339 spectra of 98 individual SNe obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project-II. These spectra, obtained with the FIRE spectrograph on the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, have a spectral range of 0.8–2.5μm. Using this sample, we explore the NIR spectral diversity of SNe Ia and construct a template of spectral time series as a function of the light-curve-shape parameter, color stretchsBV. Principal component analysis is applied to characterize the diversity of the spectral features and reduce data dimensionality to a smaller subspace. Gaussian process regression is then used to model the subspace dependence on phase and light-curve shape and the associated uncertainty. Our template is able to predict spectral variations that are correlated withsBV, such as the hallmark NIR features: Mgiiat early times and theH-band break after peak. Using this template reduces the systematic uncertainties inK-corrections by ∼90% compared to those from the Hsiao template. These uncertainties, defined as the meanK-correction differences computed with the color-matched template and observed spectra, are on the level of 4 × 10−4mag on average. This template can serve as the baseline spectral energy distribution for light-curve fitters and can identify peculiar spectral features that might point to compelling physics. The results presented here will substantially improve future SN Ia cosmological experiments, for both nearby and distant samples.

     
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  4. Abstract

    1991T-like supernovae are the luminous, slow-declining extreme of the Branch shallow-silicon (SS) subclass of Type Ia supernovae. They are distinguished by extremely weak CaiiH & K and Siiiλ6355 and strong Feiiiabsorption features in their optical spectra at pre-maximum phases, and have long been suspected to be over-luminous compared to normal Type Ia supernovae. In this paper, the pseudo-equivalent width of the Siiiλ6355 absorption obtained at light curve phases from ≤ +10 days is combined with the morphology of thei-band light curve to identify a sample of 1991T-like supernovae in the Carnegie Supernova Project II. Hubble diagram residuals show that, at optical as well as near-infrared wavelengths, these events are over-luminous by ∼0.1–0.5 mag with respect to the less extreme Branch SS (1999aa-like) and Branch core-normal supernovae with similarB-band light-curve decline rates.

     
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  7. Abstract

    We present JWST near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic observations of the nearby normal Type Ia supernova (SN) SN 2021aefx in the nebular phase at +255 days past maximum light. Our Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) and Mid Infrared Instrument observations, combined with ground-based optical data from the South African Large Telescope, constitute the first complete optical+NIR+MIR nebular SN Ia spectrum covering 0.3–14μm. This spectrum unveils the previously unobserved 2.5−5μm region, revealing strong nebular iron and stable nickel emission, indicative of high-density burning that can constrain the progenitor mass. The data show a significant improvement in sensitivity and resolution compared to previous Spitzer MIR data. We identify numerous NIR and MIR nebular emission lines from iron-group elements as well as lines from the intermediate-mass element argon. The argon lines extend to higher velocities than the iron-group elements, suggesting stratified ejecta that are a hallmark of delayed-detonation or double-detonation SN Ia models. We present fits to simple geometric line profiles to features beyond 1.2μm and find that most lines are consistent with Gaussian or spherical emission distributions, while the [Ariii] 8.99μm line has a distinctively flat-topped profile indicating a thick spherical shell of emission. Using our line profile fits, we investigate the emissivity structure of SN 2021aefx and measure kinematic properties. Continued observations of SN 2021aefx and other SNe Ia with JWST will be transformative to the study of SN Ia composition, ionization structure, density, and temperature, and will provide important constraints on SN Ia progenitor and explosion models.

     
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  8. The type Ia supernova (SN) 2012fr displayed an unusual combination of its Si II λλ5972, 6355 features. This includes the ratio of their pseudo-equivalent widths, placing it at the border of the shallow silicon (SS) and core normal (CN) spectral subtype in the Branch diagram, while the Si II λ6355 expansion velocities place it as a high-velocity (HV) object in the Wang et al. spectral type that most interestingly evolves slowly, placing it in the low-velocity gradient (LVG) typing of Benetti et al. Only 5% of SNe Ia are HV and located in the SS+CN portion of the Branch diagram, and fewer than 10% of SNe Ia are both HV and LVG. These features point toward SN 2012fr being quite unusual, similar in many ways to the peculiar SN 2000cx. We modeled the spectral evolution of SN 2012fr to see if we could gain some insight into its evolutionary behavior. We use the parameterized radiative transfer code SYNOW to probe the abundance stratification of SN 2012fr at pre-maximum, maximum, and post-maximum light epochs. We also use a grid of W7 models in the radiative transfer code PHOENIX to probe the effect of different density structures on the formation of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature at post-maximum epochs. We find that the unusual features observed in SN 2012fr are likely due to a shell-like density enhancement in the outer ejecta. We comment on possible reasons for atypical Ca II absorption features, and suggest that they are related to the Si II features. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Baade Telescope, located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. 
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  9. The Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II) was an NSF-funded, four-year program to obtain optical and near-infrared observations of a “Cosmology” sample of ˜100 Type Ia supernovae located in the smooth Hubble flow (0.03 ≲ z ≲ 0.10). Light curves were also obtained of a “Physics” sample composed of 90 nearby Type Ia supernovae at z ≤ 0.04 selected for near-infrared spectroscopic timeseries observations. The primary emphasis of the CSP-II is to use the combination of optical and near-infrared photometry to achieve a distance precision of better than 5%. In this paper, details of the supernova sample, the observational strategy, and the characteristics of the photometric data are provided. In a companion paper, the near-infrared spectroscopy component of the project is presented. 
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