skip to main content


Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Krishnan, C"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Muscle weakness and loss of independent joint control are the 2 most common neuromotor impairments after stroke. While there are a number of approaches to improve poststroke muscle weakness, there are currently no rehabilitation strategies that directly target a patient’s inability to match and independently activate the normal patterned muscle coordination strategies, or “muscle synergies.” Our goal is to develop an EMG-based controller for retraining healthy muscle synergies in patients with stroke-related disabilities. The controller can be integrated into rehabilitation robots for their ability to structure the robot’s force output based on input EMG activity. However, developing such a controller would require a clear understanding of the relationship between the applied force from a rehabilitation robot and the resulting changes to a patient’s muscle synergies. Therefore, this study was performed to quantify how the muscle synergies of horizontal planar-reaching are affected by direction of an applied force at the end-effector (ie, hand). A 2 DOF, 10 muscle model was developed in MATLAB using parameters obtained from the OpenSim (version 3.3) open source software system. Simulation experiments were then performed in MATLAB to investigate the relationship between the applied force and the resulting muscle synergies. The simulated event was composed of several trials of the same righthanded, planar, multidirectional reaching task from 0° (to the right) to 360°. Each trial applied a different steering force direction at the subject’s hand, varying from −45° to 45° relative to the reaching direction. The simulation trials were also validated by evaluating the EMG patterns of a healthy subject when performing the same reaching task with varying steering force directions. For the 0° steering force trials, the muscle synergies and their activation timings were extracted using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). For all other trials, the synergy matrix was fixed and the activation timings were extracted from the product of the EMG of that trial and the pseudo-inverse of the synergy matrix from the 0° steering force trial. By fixing the synergy matrix in the trials with steering forces, we can directly track activation changes of a certain synergy as steering force is varied. For both simulation and experimental trials, circular statistics revealed a linear relationship between changes in steering force direction and principal direction of synergy activation. These results suggest that the activation of a synergy can be controlled directly by the direction of an applied steering force. This has relevant implications in synergy-based controller design because a computer can easily manipulate a patient’s muscle synergies and track the changes while avoiding the computational expense of NMF. In addition, similar analysis could be used to extract the relationship between applied forces and changes in synergies for other types of motion. 
    more » « less