skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Kroll, Jesse H."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 14, 2023
  2. null (Ed.)
  3. Abstract. Fires emit a substantial amount of non-methane organic gases (NMOGs), theatmospheric oxidation of which can contribute to ozone and secondaryparticulate matter formation. However, the abundance and reactivity of thesefire NMOGs are uncertain and historically not well constrained. In thiswork, we expand the representation of fire NMOGs in a global chemicaltransport model, GEOS-Chem. We update emission factors to Andreae (2019) andthe chemical mechanism to include recent aromatic and ethene and ethyne modelimprovements(Bateset al., 2021; Kwon et al., 2021). We expand the representation of NMOGs byadding lumped furans to the model (including their fire emission andoxidation chemistry) and by adding fire emissions of nine species alreadyincluded in the model, prioritized for their reactivity using data from the Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments (FIREX) laboratory studies. Based on quantified emissions factors, we estimatethat our improved representation captures 72 % of emitted, identified NMOGcarbon mass and 49 % of OH reactivity from savanna and temperate forestfires, a substantial increase from the standard model (49 % of mass,28 % of OH reactivity). We evaluate fire NMOGs in our model withobservations from the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) in Brazil, Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ) and DC3 in the US, andmore »Arctic Research of the Composition of theTroposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) in boreal Canada. We show that NMOGs,including furan, are well simulated in the eastern US with someunderestimates in the western US and that adding fire emissions improves ourability to simulate ethene in boreal Canada. We estimate that fires provide15 % of annual mean simulated surface OH reactivity globally, as well as morethan 75 % over fire source regions. Over continental regions about half ofthis simulated fire reactivity comes from NMOG species. We find that furansand ethene are important globally for reactivity, while phenol is moreimportant at a local level in the boreal regions. This is the first globalestimate of the impact of fire on atmospheric reactivity.« less
  4. Abstract. Short-lived highly reactive atmospheric species, such as organic peroxy radicals (RO2) and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs), play an important role in controlling the oxidative removal and transformation of many natural and anthropogenic trace gases in the atmosphere. Direct speciated measurements of these components are extremely helpful for understanding their atmospheric fate and impact. We describe thedevelopment of an online method for measurements of SCIs and RO2 inlaboratory experiments using chemical derivatization and spin trappingtechniques combined with H3O+ and NH4+ chemicalionization mass spectrometry (CIMS). Using chemical derivatization agentswith low proton affinity, such as electron-poor carbonyls, we scavenge allSCIs produced from a wide range of alkenes without depleting CIMS reagentions. Comparison between our measurements and results from numericmodeling, using a modified version of the Master Chemical Mechanism, showsthat the method can be used for the quantification of SCIs in laboratoryexperiments with a detection limit of 1.4×107 molecule cm−3for an integration time of 30 s with the instrumentation used in this study. Weshow that spin traps are highly reactive towards atmospheric radicals andform stable adducts with them by studying the gas-phase kinetics of thereaction of spin traps with the hydroxyl radical (OH). We also demonstrate that spin trapadducts with SCIs and RO2 can be simultaneouslymore »probed and quantified under laboratory conditions with a detection limit of 1.6×108 molecule cm−3 for an integration time of 30 s for RO2 species with the instrumentation used in this study. Spin trapping prevents radical secondary reactions and cycling, ensuring that measurements are not biased by chemical interferences, and it can be implemented for detecting RO2 species in laboratory studies and potentially in the ambient atmosphere.« less
  5. Bio-derived isobutanol has been approved as a gasoline additive in the US, but our understanding of its combustion chemistry still has significant uncertainties. Detailed quantum calculations could improve model accuracy leading to better estimation of isobutanol's combustion properties and its environmental impacts. This work examines 47 molecules and 38 reactions involved in the first oxygen addition to isobutanol's three alkyl radicals located α, β, and γ to the hydroxide. Quantum calculations are mostly done at CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVTZ-F12//B3LYP/CBSB7, with 1-D hindered rotor corrections obtained at B3LYP/6-31G(d). The resulting potential energy surfaces are the most comprehensive isobutanol peroxy networks published to date. Canonical transition state theory and a 1-D microcanonical master equation are used to derive high-pressure-limit and pressure-dependent rate coefficients, respectively. At all conditions studied, the recombination of γ-isobutanol radical with O 2 forms HO 2 + isobutanal. The recombination of β-isobutanol radical with O 2 forms a stabilized hydroperoxy alkyl radical below 400 K, water + an alkoxy radical at higher temperatures, and HO 2 + an alkene above 1200 K. The recombination of β-isobutanol radical with O 2 results in a mixture of products between 700–1100 K, forming acetone + formaldehyde + OH at lower temperatures and forming HO 2more »+ alkenes at higher temperatures. The barrier heights, high-pressure-limit rates, and pressure-dependent kinetics generally agree with the results from previous quantum chemistry calculations. Six reaction rates in this work deviate by over three orders of magnitude from kinetics in detailed models of isobutanol combustion, suggesting the rates calculated here can help improve modeling of isobutanol combustion and its environmental fate.« less
  6. Abstract Atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs) influence global climate by altering cloud formation, lifetime, and precipitation efficiency. The role of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material as a source of INPs in the ambient atmosphere has not been well defined. Here, we demonstrate the potential for biogenic SOA to activate as depositional INPs in the upper troposphere by combining field measurements with laboratory experiments. Ambient INPs were measured in a remote mountaintop location at –46 °C and an ice supersaturation of 30% with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 70 L –1 . Concentrations of depositional INPs were positively correlated with the mass fractions and loadings of isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosols. Compositional analysis of ice residuals showed that ambient particles with isoprene-derived SOA material can act as depositional ice nuclei. Laboratory experiments further demonstrated the ability of isoprene-derived SOA to nucleate ice under a range of atmospheric conditions. We further show that ambient concentrations of isoprene-derived SOA can be competitive with other INP sources. This demonstrates that isoprene and potentially other biogenically-derived SOA materials could influence cirrus formation and properties.