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  1. Abstract We report the detection of an ionized gas outflow from an X-ray active galactic nucleus hosted in a massive quiescent galaxy in a protocluster at z = 3.09 (J221737.29+001823.4). It is a type-2 QSO with broad ( W 80 > 1000 km s −1 ) and strong ( log ( L [ OIII ] /erg s −1 ) ≈ 43.4) [O iii ] λ λ 4959,5007 emission lines detected by slit spectroscopy in three-position angles using Multi-Object Infra-Red Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru telescope and the Multi-Object Spectrometer For Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE) on the Keck-I telescope. In the all slit directions, [O iii ] emission is extended to ∼15 physical kpc and indicates a powerful outflow spreading over the host galaxy. The inferred ionized gas mass outflow rate is 22 ± 3 M ⊙ yr −1 . Although it is a radio source, according to the line diagnostics using H β , [O ii ], and [O iii ], photoionization by the central QSO is likely the dominant ionization mechanism rather than shocks caused by radio jets. On the other hand, the spectral energy distribution of the host galaxy is well characterized as a quiescent galaxy thatmore »has shut down star formation several hundred Myr ago. Our results suggest a scenario that QSOs are powered after the shutdown of the star formation and help complete the quenching of massive quiescent galaxies at high redshift.« less
  2. Abstract We report a massive quiescent galaxy at z spec = 3.0922 − 0.004 + 0.008 spectroscopically confirmed at a protocluster in the SSA22 field by detecting the Balmer and Ca ii absorption features with the multi-object spectrometer for infrared exploration on the Keck I telescope. This is the most distant quiescent galaxy confirmed in a protocluster to date. We fit the optical to mid-infrared photometry and spectrum simultaneously with spectral energy distribution (SED) models of parametric and nonparametric star formation histories (SFHs). Both models fit the observed SED well and confirm that this object is a massive quiescent galaxy with a stellar mass of log ( M ⋆ / M ⊙ ) = 11.26 − 0.04 + 0.03 and 11.54 − 0.00 + 0.03 , and a star formation rate of SFR/ M ⊙ yr −1 < 0.3 and = 0.01 − 0.01 + 0.03 for parametric and nonparametric models, respectively. The SFH from the former modeling is described as an instantaneous starburst whereas that of the latter modeling is longer-lived, but both models agree with a sudden quenching of the star formation at ∼0.6 Gyr ago. This massive quiescent galaxy is confirmed in an extremely dense group ofmore »galaxies predicted as a progenitor of a brightest cluster galaxy formed via multiple mergers in cosmological numerical simulations. We discover three new plausible [O iii ] λ 5007 emitters at 3.0791 ≤ z spec ≤ 3.0833 serendipitously detected around the target. Two of them just between the target and its nearest massive galaxy are possible evidence of their interactions. They suggest the future great size and stellar mass evolution of this massive quiescent galaxy via mergers.« less